In numbers: The COVID-19 pandemic

Data | Who are the most vulnerable to the lockdown among urban dwellers

Migrant labourers from Bengal are stuck in shanties in New Delhi’s Vishwas Nagar for nearly a week since the Janta Curfew was announced.   | Photo Credit: Special arrangement

The COVID-19-related lockdown may have an immediate impact on close to 2.5 crore people in vulnerable jobs across India, an estimate from the latest Period Labour Force Survey suggests. Census figures on internal migration reveal a significant number of migrant workers among those vulnerable.

No work no pay

The table shows the estimated number of urban workers in vulnerable jobs across India. These include helpers in a household enterprise (who do not receive a regular salary) and casual labourers (who receive daily wages). The number only includes those who were in the bottom 50% of the wealth pyramid in 2017-18 (calculated based on their monthly per capita expenditure.

Urban workers in vulnerable jobs in India

image/svg+xml Household enterprises as helpers 34,63,050 Public works other than MGNREGA as casual labourers 2,20,351 Other places as casual labourers 1,12,70,348 Total 1,49,53,750 Working in: Estimated workers

Steady pay, yet unsecured

Of the nearly 1.78 crore urban dwellers, who were part of the bottom 50% of the wealth pyramid and worked in regular/salaried jobs, more than 52% do not get paid leave. These people (close to 94 lakh) will be among those severely affected by the lockdown. Data only include those working in non-agricultural sectors in urban areas.

Workers without any benefits

image/svg+xml Workers % share Total workers Not eligible for paid leave 52.8 94,25,207 With no security benefit* 47.7 85,14,817 With no written contract 72.4 1,29,23,958 *PF/ pension, gratuity, health care and maternity benefit

Also read: Beware of a lopsided lockdown

Migrant workers

Close to 81 lakh migrant workers in urban areas who were either illiterate or had studied upto 12th grade could be among those with vulnerable jobs. Many of them have been stranded due to train cancellations and sealing of borders. Close to 3.8 lakh were in the 60+ age group that has the highest COVID-19 fatality rate.

Elderly migrant workers

image/svg+xml Last place of residence All ages 60+ A rural place within a State 30,07,995 1,59,167 Urban place within a State 19,01,157 1,30,348 A rural place outside a State 23,90,630 51,792 Urban place outside a State 8,56,376 37,803 Total 81,56,158 3,79,110

State-wise vulnerable migrants

Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu host most such migrants.

State-wise split

image/svg+xml 1,00010,0001,00,000 Number of such migrants Number of such migrants aged 60+ 10,00,000 1,00,000 50,000 20,000 10,000 5,000 2,000 1,000 500 200 100 Maharashtra T.N. States with most such migrants A.P. Gujarat Manipur Assam

Also read: ₹1.7 lakh cr. package with doubled food rations, cash transfers for poor

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Printable version | May 13, 2021 1:45:40 AM |

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