Jammu & Kashmir: From a State with autonomy to two Union Territories

Is Jammu and Kashmir underdeveloped as stated by Amit Shah?

An Indian paramilitary soldier guards during security lockdown in Jammu, India, Monday, Aug. 5, 2019.

An Indian paramilitary soldier guards during security lockdown in Jammu, India, Monday, Aug. 5, 2019.   | Photo Credit: AP

Where does Jammu and Kashmir stand in comparison to other States in key indicators of growth and development

Union Home Minister Amit Shah has linked poor healthcare, poverty, lack of doctors and slow economic growth in Jammu and Kashmir to amendment to Article 370. However, a look at how the State, now bifurcated into Union Territories, compares with other States in key indicators suggests that these concerns are exaggerated.

Life expectancy

Jammu and Kashmir ranked third out of 22 States in terms of life expectancy. The former State had an average life expectancy of 73.5 between 2012-16. Kerala had the highest life expectancy of 75.1, while Uttar Pradesh had the lowest (64.8). The national average was 68.7.

People served per government doctor

3,060 persons were served by one government doctor in J&K in 2018. Only six States have had lesser people served by one doctor. The best State was Delhi (2,203 people per government doctor) while the worst State was Bihar (28,391 persons served by one government doctor).

Rural unemployment rate

Jammu and Kashmir was placed 21st for rural unemployment rate in 2011-12. Out of every 1,000 people, 25 were unemployed in the rural areas of J&K. The best State was Gujarat (3 out of every 1000 people were unemployed) while Nagaland was the worst (151 were unemployed out of every 1000 people). The national average was 17.

In the following charts, each circle corresponds to a State with Jammu and Kashmir highlighted in red.

How J&K compares to other States in life expectancy, people served by doctors and rural unemployment rate

image/svg+xml Lower the figure, the better in thousands Unemployed per 1,000 (in years) People served per govt. doctor Rural unemployment rate(2011-12) 18 States worse 2 States better 6 States better 23 States worse 19 States better 9 States worse 20 60 100 140 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 65 67 69 71 73 75 73.5 3,060 25 0 Life expectancy 2012-16
 

Poverty rate

J&K stood eighth in terms of poverty rate (10.35)%. Goa had the lowest poverty rate of 5.09%, while Chhattisgarh had the highest poverty rate of 39.93%. The national average was 21.92%.

Infant mortality rate

The former State had an infant mortality rate (IMR) of 24 and was placed 10th in the country in 2016. Goa had the lowest IMR (8 infant deaths per 1000) while Madhya Pradesh had the highest (47 infant deaths per 1000). The national average for IMR was 31.

Per capita net State GDP (2016-17)

In 2016-17, Jammu and Kashmir had per capita net State GDP of ₹62,145. Goa was the top-ranked State (₹3,08,823) while Bihar (₹25,950) was the lowest ranked State.

Human development index

In 2017, Jammu and Kashmir’s Human Development Index (HDI) was 0.68, higher than even States like Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Kerala had the highest HDI (0.77) while Bihar had the least (0.57). The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators.

How J&K compares to other States in poverty rate, infant mortality rate, per capita net-State GDP and HDI

image/svg+xml Per capita net State GDP, FY17 (In Rs. 1000) Infant mortality rate 2016 Infant deaths per 1,000 births % of population in poverty* 7 States better 21 States worse 9 States better 19 States worse 8 States worse 20 States better