Data | UAPA, PMLA, Section 153A: Rise in cases, low on convictions

In recent days, cases filed under UAPA, PMLA and Section 153A are rising, while convictions have remained poor

September 10, 2022 11:50 am | Updated 09:04 pm IST

Bail, at last: The Supreme Court on September 9 allowed bail to journalist Siddique Kappan, who was in custody for nearly two years and is accused of offences under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA)

Bail, at last: The Supreme Court on September 9 allowed bail to journalist Siddique Kappan, who was in custody for nearly two years and is accused of offences under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA)

The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), and Section 153A of the Indian Penal Code (promoting enmity between different groups on grounds of religion, race, place of birth, residence) have a common link. In recent days, cases filed under these laws and section are rising, while convictions have remained poor. Under the UAPA, 4,690 persons were arrested between 2018 and 2020, but only 3% were convicted. Till March 2022, 5,422 cases were recorded under the PMLA, but only 23 resulted in convictions. The conviction rate under Section 153A in 2020 was just 20.2%. Moreover, under the UAPA and PMLA, getting bail is tough, and so the accused spend most of the trial period inside prison. For instance, of the 1,338 persons convicted under the UAPA in U.P. between 2018 and 2020, only 6% got convicted, while none of the other 94% got bail.

Arrests under UAPA

The chart shows the number of people arrested under the UAPA between 2018 and 2020, and the number of people who were convicted , acquitted and got bail. 

Hover over the charts to find the exact figures

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UAPA data, State-wise

The chart shows the share of people who were convicted, acquitted, got bail and undertrials in prison, among those arrested under the UAPA between 2018 and 2020. For instance, of the 750 persons arrested (in brackets) in J&K, none were convicted, 47% were on bail, 6% were acquitted while 46% were undertrials in prison.

Arrests under PMLA

The chart shows the number of cases filed under the PMLA. The case count has increased sharply in recent years. Only 23 have been convicted in the 5,422 cases filed until March 2022.

Section 153A

Among select major crimes, cases registered under Section 153A had among the lowest conviction rates (20.2%) in 2020.

Source: Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, NCRB 

Also read: How the UAPA is wrecking lives 

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