Opinion » Lead

Updated: March 24, 2012 14:55 IST

From food security to food justice

Ananya Mukherjee
Comment (33)   ·   print   ·   T  T  
The Hindu

A quarter of a million women in Kerala are showing us how to earn livelihoods with dignity.

If the malnourished in India formed a country, it would be the world's fifth largest — almost the size of Indonesia. According to Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), 237.7 million Indians are currently undernourished (up from 224.6 million in 2008). And it is far worse if we use the minimal calorie intake norms accepted officially in India. By those counts <http://www.thehindu. com/news/resources/article2803621.ece> (2200 rural/2100 urban), the number of Indians who cannot afford the daily minimum could equal the entire population of Europe.

Yet, the Indian elite shrieks at the prospect of formalising a universal right to food. Notwithstanding the collective moral deficit this reveals, it also shows that the millions of Indians whose food rights are so flagrantly violated are completely voiceless in the policy space. India's problem is not only to secure food, but to secure food justice.

What can food justice practically mean? First, to prevent situations where grains rot while people die — a very basic principle of distributive justice. But it has to mean a lot more: people must have the right to produce food with dignity, have control over the parameters of production, get just value for their labour and their produce. Mainstream notions of food security ignore this dimension.

Food justice must entail both production and distribution. Its fundamental premise must be that governments have a non-negotiable obligation to address food insecurity. They must also address the structural factors that engender that insecurity. Most governments, however, appear neither willing nor able to deliver food justice. It needs therefore the devolution of power and resources to the local level, where millions of protagonists, with their knowledge of local needs and situations, can create a just food economy.

Collective struggle

This is not quite as utopian as it may sound. Something on these lines has been unfolding in Kerala — a collective struggle of close to a quarter million women who are farming nearly 10 million acres of land. The experiment, “Sangha Krishi,” or group farming, is part of Kerala's anti-poverty programme “Kudumbashree.” Initiated in 2007, it was seen as a means to enhance local food production. Kerala's women embraced this vision enthusiastically. As many as 44, 225 collectives of women farmers have sprung up across the State. These collectives lease fallow land, rejuvenate it, farm it and then either sell the produce or use it for consumption, depending on the needs of members. On an average, Kudumbashree farmers earn Rs.15,000-25,000 per year (sometimes higher, depending on the crops and the number of yields annually).

Kudumbashree is a network of 4 million women, mostly below the poverty line. It is not a mere ‘project' or a ‘programme' but a social space where marginalised women can collectively pursue their needs and aspirations. The primary unit of Kudumbashree is the neighbourhood group (NHG). Each NHG consists of 10-20 women; for an overwhelming majority, the NHG is their first ever space outside the home. NHGs are federated into an Area Development Society (ADS) and these are in turn federated into Community Development Societies (CDSs) at the panchayat level. Today, there are 213,000 NHGs all over Kerala. Kudumbashree office-bearers are elected, a crucial process for its members. “We are poor. We don't have money or connections to get elected — only our service,” is a common refrain. These elections bring women into politics. And they bring with them a different set of values that can change politics.

The NHG is very different from a self-help group (SHG) in that it is structurally linked to the State (through the institutions of local self-government). This ensures that local development reflects the needs and aspirations of communities, who are not reduced to mere “executors” of government programmes. What is sought is a synergy between democratisation and poverty reduction; with Kudumbashree, this occurs through the mobilisation of poor women's leadership and solidarity. “Sangha Krishi” or group farming is just one example of how this works. It is transforming the socio-political space that women inhabit — who in turn transform that space in vital ways.

This experiment is having three major consequences. First, there is a palpable shift in the role of women in Kerala's agriculture. This was earlier limited to daily wage work in plantations — at wages much lower than those earned by men. Thousands of Kudumbashree women — hitherto underpaid agricultural labourers — have abandoned wage work to become independent producers. Many others combine wage work with farming. With independent production comes control over one's time and labour, over crops and production methods and, most significantly, over the produce. Since the farmers are primarily poor women, they often decide to use a part of their produce to meet their own needs, rather than selling it. Every group takes this decision democratically, depending on levels of food insecurity of their members. In Idukki, where the terrain prevents easy market access and food insecurity is higher, farmers take more of their produce home — as opposed to Thiruvananthapuram where market access is better and returns are higher.

Sangha Krishi

Second, “Sangha Krishi” has enabled women to salvage their dignity and livelihoods amidst immense adversity. Take the story of Subaida in Malappuram. Once widowed and once deserted, with three young children, she found no means of survival other than cleaning dead bodies. Hardly adequate as a livelihood, it also brought her unbearable social ostracism. Now Subaida is a proud member of a farming collective and wants to enter politics. In the nine districts this writer visited, there was a visible, passionate commitment to social inclusion amongst Kudumbashree farmers.

Our survey of 100 collectives across 14 districts found that 15 per cent of the farmers were Dalits and Adivasis and 32 per cent came from the minority communities.

Third, “Sangha Krishi” is producing important consequences for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Kerala. Because of Kerala's high wages for men, the MGNREGS in Kerala has become predominantly a space for women (93 per cent of the employment generated has gone to women where the national average is 50). From the beginning, synergies were sought between the MGNREGS, the People's Plan and Kudumbashree. Kudumbashree farmers strongly feel this has transformed MGNREGS work.

“We have created life … and food, which gives life, not just 100 days of manual labour,” said a Perambra farmer. In Perambra, Kudumbashree women, working with the panchayat, have rejuvenated 140 acres that lay fallow for 26 years. It now grows rice, vegetables and tapioca. Farmers also receive two special incentives — an ‘area incentive' for developing land and a ‘production incentive' for achieving certain levels of productivity. These amounted to over Rs.200 million in 2009-10. They were combined with subsidised loans from banks and the State, and seeds, input and equipment from Krishi Bhavan and the panchayats.


However, serious challenges remain. Kudumbashree farmers are predominantly landless women working on leased land; there is no certainty of tenure. Lack of ownership also restricts access to credit, since they cannot offer formal guarantees on the land they farm. Whenever possible, Kudumbashree collectives have started buying land to overcome this uncertainty. But an alternative institutional solution is clearly needed. It is also difficult for women to access resources and technical know-how — the relevant institutions (such as crop committees) are oriented towards male farmers. There is also no mechanism of risk insurance.

Is this a sustainable, replicable model of food security? It is certainly one worth serious analysis. First, this concerted effort to encourage agriculture is occurring when farmers elsewhere are forced to exit farming — in large numbers. It re-connects food security to livelihoods, as any serious food policy must. But more importantly, the value of Sangha Krishi lies in that it has become the manifestation of a deep-rooted consciousness about food justice amongst Kerala's women. Kannyama, the president of Idamalakudy, Kerala's first tribal panchayat, says she wants to make her community entirely self-sufficient in food. She wants Sangha Krishi produce to feed every school and anganwadi in her panchayat — to ensure that children get local, chemical-free food. Elsewhere, Kudumbashree farmers plan to protest the commercialisation of land. Even in the tough terrain of Idukki's Vathikudy panchayat, women were taking a census of fallow land in the area that they could cultivate. Some 100,000 women practise organic farming and more wish to. Kudumbashree farmers speak passionately about preventing ecological devastation through alternative farming methods.

In the world of Sangha Krishi, food is a reflection of social relations. And only new social relations of food, not political manoeuvres, can combat the twin violence of hunger and injustice.

(Ananya Mukherjee is Professor and Chair of Political Science at York University, Toronto. Her latest work is a co-edited volume in collaboration with UNRISD, Geneva (Business Regulation and Non-state actors: Whose Standards? Whose Development? Routledge Studies in Development Economics, 2012.))

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This is something amazing and we need to have more innovative solutions to fight the issue of food security.

Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 12:47 IST

i acprepiate your efforts and in agreement whatever you pointed out, but instead of classifying violators of human rights as only right wing hindutva was not in the right spirit, while it's well know fact that in most of the child-sex abusers are near ones..and as far as statements of the lady judge is concerned, the logic behind it is flawed and pathetic.

from:  Shanil
Posted on: Feb 22, 2012 at 03:23 IST

It is a call to the rest of the States in India to go beyond self- help groups to neighbourhood groups. As rightly observed by Ananya Mukherjee, neighbourhood groups, unlike self-help groups, are structurally linked to the State (through institutions of local governance). They give women an organized voice of empowerment to interact at various levels of governance (through multi-tier representative federations of these neighbourhood groups).
Neighbourhood groups, being territorially organized, could play the role of "mini-wards" through which particpation in governance by the last and the least could be systematically initiated. Self-help groups,on the other hand,have tended to lead to fragmentation of power of women. People get fragmented on the basis of allegiance to various NGOs. The women tend to give more importance to meetings called for by the respective NGOs than to meetings of territory-based common interest.Self-help groups must be reorganized as neighbourhood groups.

from:  Edwin m John
Posted on: Feb 4, 2012 at 23:35 IST

the vary positive efforts seen in kerala is an example of development in
india . today the definition of development is not just development of
living standards of people who are living in urban areas it is also the
development of rural india . NHG sanghekrishi are few stepping stones
towards the development of rural india this must also be adopted by
other states of india too ..

from:  sandeep
Posted on: Feb 4, 2012 at 09:49 IST

Thank you Ms Mukherjee for the brilliant article and for bringing the topic to the attention of wider public. I am from kerala and I have seen women in my village benefit from the program, economically and socially. In most of the cases, it has been seen that any amount of income ( however small it is) earned by a woman goes straight to the benefit of household ; whereas half of income earned by men goes to buying alcohol.
I have heard people talk about lack of ‘development’ in Kerala and I have always argued that although Kerala cannot (yet) show off development in the form of glitzy malls and shiny corporate buildings, I do not see any other state in India that can match Kerala’s level of rural development and women’s empowerment. The article is quite relevant at this time when it is said that 42% of India is malnourished and there is a crisis going on in the agrarian sector.

from:  Deepthy Ravi
Posted on: Feb 2, 2012 at 21:00 IST

Kerala women, belonging to the poverty line, are fantastic to make food to their families of almost nothing. This posibility, throw Kudumbashree,that women can farm together is a briliant idea helping families to survive on their own harvest. A lot of husbands and fathers from the poverty line work at days and use most of their money drinking in the evenings.Now the women can feed their children and give them good organic nourishing food. BRAVO!

from:  Gerd Annemarie
Posted on: Feb 2, 2012 at 08:56 IST

In general the concept of "Sangha Krishi" seems to be a good option to practice in other parts of India by the farmers in association with MGNREGS but in particular it can not be neglected that,as in Kerala there is lack of literacy in the other parts of this country and emancipation at individual level in this very society somehow lag in other part of the country as well, people thus are mere reluctant to the concept of NHGs. Here it would be pertinent to say that awareness towards education is really the need of hour and then only farmers in other part do also understand its importance and would dare to take such steps in hand. The beautiful side of this concept is that keralites(women) are using the MGNREGS's in a most efficient manner.
I would say a really good and well compiled article though.

from:  Nikhil Srivastava
Posted on: Feb 2, 2012 at 00:23 IST

It was a very valuable piece of information. I hope it doesnt stop just with Kerala and paves its way into other states. Thank you for this well articulated piece!

from:  Anusha Rajagopalan
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 21:37 IST

Kerala's 'Kudumbashree' helped to reduce extreme poverty and simultaneously empowered the women. But, as pointed out by Raju Varghese herein above, their earnings were very low and cannot be sustainable. Additionally, it should be analysed critically, considering the whole very complex socio-economic context in Kerala. It is sad that Kerala has so much of fertile rice fields left fallow, coconut farms are forced to be neglected etc; all because, most of the able bodied Keralites are working overseas. Kerala, one of the most literate states of India is a paradox!

from:  Abraham Karammel
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 20:45 IST

The argument made about 'collective moral deficit' is nothing but a
subtle attempt to dissuade disagreement. A society becomes moral only
when its members *voluntarily* feed its hungry, *voluntarily* clothes
its naked, and *voluntarily* provide dwelling to the homeless. It does
not become the case when it is legislated. I sincerely hope that
Kerala model where trade unions decide who and how many you employ on
farms, and charge people for loss of jobs due to mechanization becomes
the norm in our country. We will have no food if that happens -- why?
because Kerala imports almost all its food from other states. So much
for its success. I hope that a day will come when the arm chair
intellectuals and governments stop meddling with the liberties in the
name of moral deficit, food security, and other such jargon. If there
is no government intervention, and a proper law that prevents
squatting on land by tenants and does not take decades to evict,
Kerala would be self sufficient in food.

from:  Thomas George
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 20:16 IST

"Women in statesmanship, managing territories, governing countries, even making war, have proved themselves equal to men — if not superior. In India I have no doubt of that. Whenever they have had the opportunity, they have proved that they have as much ability as men, with this advantage — that they seldom degenerate. They keep to the moral standard, which is innate in their nature. And thus as governors and rulers of their state, they prove — at least in India — far superior to men."
Swami Vivekananda

from:  Ramya S
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 20:12 IST

Impressive work Ananya. Much more could to be achieved if many of those group get proper guidance (technical) and support (in availing resources like land, water etc). It is very good sign that the group make use of the unused fertile lands for agriculture. Many case those lands were not used for many years. It helps to some extend to retain those fertile lands for agriculture. If the local government motivate and manage these programs well, we could see many villages self sufficient in food in the future.

from:  Aneesh
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 20:06 IST

First of all,Thanks to Ananya for a well written article.This is an eye-opener for all food deprived communities.Kudambashree is one such excellent initiative,proper support has to be given these self-sustained ladies who are giving a chance for the poor to re-live. Greatest concern i feel is that,now it has grown to very high level of employing huge numbers and good turn-over,dirty politics should stain the sacred community of self-employed.
Kudambashree - A community rising from the ashes...!!!

from:  Bal
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 19:52 IST

A very incisive writing on the " Kudumbashree " concept in kerala.Surely this kinds of collective effort with greater participation and focus on fostering innovation can do wonders to eliminate the travails of hunger and malnourishment.By making themselves self sufficient in food production and abandoning the wage system they have presented an alternative hope for agriculture in our country at a time when farmers are forced to give up agriculture.

from:  raju
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 19:52 IST

A vital census arouse by Mr. Mukherjee - The Hindu. with rough terrain from south to north condition is akin, let me add on this. potatoes trampled by punjab farmers amidst of the national highway from the very same tyres which cultivate them, in fury. uttrakhand farmers' follows their north-west neighbour while dumping the fresh green peas and there is a lot many more pertinent cases in enormous, incredible politics governed India. food inflation reaches to its nadir during farmer production and rest of the time on its zenith. aftermath no revenue for the cherisher. ulterior, we need tens of institutions like Kudumbashree which brings agri-reforms as like as Aryasamaj did for social. a true synergy between government, various related departments and farmers.

from:  navdeep singh
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 16:43 IST

What has attracted my concern is the amount of money that each member of the Kudumbashree gets in a year which is Rs.15000to 25000 per year.That works out to Rs.1250 to 2083 per month.Breaking it down to daily earning that comes to Rs42 to 69 per day.The average daily wages of women workers for 5 hours-a-day work is upwards from Rs 275.Therefore even sangha krishi is not a sustainable full time occupation for the women workers of Kerala.It is only a supplementary activity.Coupled with MGNREGS it may be OK.

from:  Raju Varghese
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 14:06 IST

Well written. However there are still some challenges to the scheme:
1. WATER is a scarce commodity in other parts of the country; especially areas away from the coast. New irrigation plans focus on larger dams, supplying water to cities rather than the farmlands. 2.LABOUR - with the rural population migrating to cities & nearby towns. Hence, farms are either being converted into plantations (which is lesser labor intensive), or settlement areas & sold for short term gains 3. LAND LAWS - unless the villagers own the land, such systems can be tricky to implement 4. Mining & industries (which are much more profitable) have destroyed land & water to an extent that villages don’t have access to even drinking water (e.g. Goa, which is suriving on tourism) 5.Rural Needs have risen from food & shelter to much more. TV, mobiles etc. are now up in the priority list. That calls for an alternate salaried income – which is easier found in cities; almost at the cost of an assured meal…

from:  Anand
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 13:41 IST

Now this is where FDI in retail can be benifical in a huge way. if Foreign retails have to survive they have to build storage facilities,Cold storage etc.. Optimize the logistics model ,. Currently 40% of what we produce rottens in open spaces due to our inefficient logistics and distribution model. As mentioned in the bill 70% sourcing will come from sme's which will definately encourage formation of these kind of organizations... Kudos to the keralites.....

from:  jasmeet
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 13:05 IST

For me kudumbashree is all about the authentic kerala food they prepare and deliver at home at cheap price. Nowhere else we will find the real taste of kerala without any preservatives, chemicals and all. Go ahead kudumbashree...

from:  basil paulose
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 12:33 IST

Growing food in homes in not a rocket science. Whether one lives in a
flat(apartment) or in single family homes with a yard, it's easily
possible to grow limited amount of vegetables. I'm speaking from
personal experience, proving it to myself that it's possible. One of
the schools in Kerala even demonstrated how rice can be grown in a
pot. Kudumbashree and similar ventures are the right way to not only
promote community farming, but also to rejuvenate the very social
structure that is vital to survival of the community.What is lacking is the will or interest among people to 'dirty' their hands, spend the time to nurture the plants and see the fruits of their labour. Unfortunately we're too caught up in our present lifestyle to see the bigger picture of where the society is heading. an example (again from direct experience) is when a school kid (of a Kendriya Vidyalaya) in Kerala was asked where does rice come - the answer was from the supermarket.

from:  Sriram Krishnan
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 12:19 IST

""Kudumbashree "concept has been in practice in Kerala for some years now.Fortunately for Kerala most of the time Self Serving Politicians are KEPT AWAY from taking credit for something of this magnificent example of what women can do as a collective when driven to the wall. It will be difficult for people n other states to emulate because of the illiteracy and the dominance of politicians and influential.The Kudumbashree women arrange for the collection of WASTE from individual houses/flats by women and few men regularly onnominal charges and some Corporations have implimented the distribution of buckets for collecting bio waste and plastic/solid waste SEPARATELY.
This programme has given as Ms.Mukherjee mentioned new found hope and self respect among women who find themselves at wrong side of the stick in a society. SO FAR the politicians have been fighting in the Assembly over the concept but no one can predict when they WILL HI-JACK the projects initiated by Brave Women .

from:  Arackal Narayanan
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 12:01 IST

Ms.Mukherjee should be congratulated for bringing out something VERY POSITIVE and ENCOURAGING at a time every media and channels report nothing but Scams,Misappropriation,shortages,rising prices,rotting of food grains when people are starving etc. There is a Fundamental flaw in the Concept adopted by Governments from 1947 on the accumulation and distribution of food grains.ARTFICIAL scarcities are CREATED to suit rich middlemen.Govt Collection Centers DO NOT Care for the proper storage NOR they report in time to higher ups about the problems they face.One side farmers commit suicide for not finding break even prices for their produce.Latest from Bengal ruled by a Very Popular C.M show that rhetorics and powerplay DO NOT substitute bringing efficiency in the system.Delegation of Authority is NOT HEARD in many places in the country where lower level officials could initiate necessary steps.Kerala initiative is 4 years old BUT this publicity WILL INVITE Politicians to EARN CREDIT

from:  Ajith Kumar
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 11:47 IST

The Sangha Krishi programme is a clear illustration of how a decentralised approach based on women's collectives with appropriate Government support can effectively address the issue of food security and more importantly food justice. This must be taken cognizance of particularly in the context of the enormous opposition from the Government mandarins towards universalisation of food security. As Mukherjee clearly points out in spite of some of the problems facing landless farmers in the Sangha Krishi programme it is a viable approach that must be considered seriously as one of the enabling factors in alleviating the colossal problem of malnutrition in the country. It is really the old parable of giving fish vs teaching fishing....enable livelihood instead of giving handouts to address food security.

from:  Radha Gopalan
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 11:39 IST

Commendable effort by the government and people of Kerela and also by
the author of the article to take efforts to throw light on this

from:  Saurabh Kundan
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 11:25 IST

It is the women of India who have to take the lead in all spheres of life and show the way to a more sustainable and equitable model of development.One should not expect much from the urban women who are blindly following male stereotypes but the hope of India lies in the power and organisation of the rural women. If these women could be empowered they can really do wonders. All the governments are paying lip sympathy to women empowerment but nothing is happening at the ground level. I agree with the author that malnourishment and disease are a serious impediment in the way of India,s progress. On the one hand food grains are rotting due to lack of storage space and on the other hand millions are dying of starvation.The need of the hour is to revolutionise our agricultural sector and make it the top priority.The kerala experiment is a step in the right direction.

from:  umesh bhagwat
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 10:40 IST

Thank you for the write up. Also glad to see women reporting these subjects. You rock! Go Kudumbasree!

from:  Vidyut
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 10:19 IST

Considerable work has gone into this wonderful scheme and the onus to
make it sustainable should be viewed up on as a priority matter by the
state Govt. Access to formal credit at special terms should be allowed.

from:  Rahul S
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 10:02 IST

Great courageous story that shows how Food Security and food justice
can be sustained by alternate organic farming.However with the new
introductory of Bio Regulatory Authority of India-BRAI Bill in Indian
Parliament the cycle of survival shall be more difficult.Already the
trials on BT Brinjal and BT Cotton have proven and have forced 2.66
lakh suicides.Such stories of organic food shall then be replaced by
stories of `Pharma food`.Why we need to block MNCs looking to sell our
farmers GM seeds....For more details read my article in Governance Now
title:Of seeds, parliament, prayers and the Gita.

from:  Rakesh Manchanda
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 09:24 IST

The article does not say anything about how this scheme is better than the schemes followed in other states, in different names, and also the unique features because of which this scheme has achieved very great results, giving some figures to justify the claim.

Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 09:20 IST

In this perspective Kerala is really a model for the country where self employment and cooperation is considered as a method of self as well as development of whole community but why could it not be adopted by whole india?

from:  Anand Mishra
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 09:16 IST

This article comes at a time of huge cynicism that is prevalent in the country in all facets.The NHGs, the ADSs and CDSs are not entirely new concepts but an existent pyramidal structure in the conventional village setup, one that needs to be resurrected in a big way. Besides the obvious take away of rejuvenation of fallow land, engendering self belief among women and empowering them, educating them on the need for healthy eating especially the children and most of all cameraderie, this movement has the ripple effect of erasing the boundaries of religion, gender caste and social status. So, instead of shouting 'SECULAR' and 'INCLUSIVE' from the roof tops for dishonestly garnering votes, this should be the page they must preserve and publicize for re-enactment. Joint and symbiotic approach to food needs among the poverty stricken, is the need of the hour and it is high time this is recognized among our polity. This then should provide the blueprint for a forward movement towards prosperity.

from:  leela krishnaswamy
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 07:14 IST

Congratulations to Ananya Mukkerjee for the excellent evaluation of the Kudumbasree and Sankhakrishi programs in Kerala. A Canadian of Indian origin has to go to Kerala to evalute the above projects because the government evaluation of those programs will be always political and suspecious. Keralite or Indian ignore these programs because these programs does not produce big headlines. I see in Kerala newspapers bits of information about the above programs, but nobody explains what are these programs to insiders or outsiders. Kerala is in the threshold of community development, land distribution, Kudumbasree, Sanghkrishi, old age pension scheme, health insurance and free medical care in Government clinics, hospitals and medical colleges, rural roads and free education in government schools. The social development in Kerala is equivalant to or better than in advanced countries and rest of India. My hats off to Kerala! But Kerala needs special attention to infrastructure and electricity.

from:  Davis K. Thanjan
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 05:02 IST

The problem of food insecurity is that Govt has too much intervention in
the products (input output) but too little in infrastructure space
(roads). There needs to be liberalisation in agriculture, so taht poor
can afford food (a govt controlled sector) as much as they can afford a
mobile (a liberalised sector)

from:  Anurag Banerjee
Posted on: Feb 1, 2012 at 03:03 IST
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