There is very little, if any, concrete stuff about promoting science in the country, and a lot of it seems poised to supplant the goals of other ministries.
Even though they haven't been in power for the last decade, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) concedes no concrete assurances for science & technology in the country in its manifesto ahead of the 2014 Lok Sabha polls. However, these subjects are geared to be utilised for the benefit of other sectors in which specific promises feature aplenty. Indeed, the party's S&T section of the manifesto reads like a bulleted list of the most popular problems for scientific research in India and the world, although that the party has taken cognizance of this-and-that is heartening.
The BJP makes no mention of increasing India's spending on S&T while the Indian National Congress promises to do that to 2% of GDP, a long-standing demand. On the upside, however, both parties mention that they would like to promote private sector involvement in certain areas like agriculture, education, transportation and public infrastructure, but only the BJP mentions it in the context of scientific research.
As things stand, private sector involvement in scientific research in India is very low. A DST report from May 2013 claims that it would like to achieve 50-50 investment from public and private participants by 2017, while the global norm stands at 66-34 in favour of private. It is well-documented that higher private sector involvement, together with more interdisciplinary research, reduces the time for commercialization of technologies - which the BJP aspires to in its manifesto. However, the party doesn't mention the sort of fiscal and policy benefits it will be willing to use to stimulate the private sector.
Apart from this, there are other vague aspirations, too. Sample the following.
- Promotion of innovation by creating a comprehensive national system of innovation
- Set [up] an institute of Big data and Analytics for studying the impact of big data across sectors for predictive science
- Establish an Intellectual Property Rights Regime
There is also mention of tackling climate change, with a bias toward the Himalayan region. Under the S&T section, there's a point about establishing a "Central University dedicated to Himalayan technology". With respect to conservation efforts, BJP proposes to "launch 'National Mission on Himalayas' as a unique programme of inter-governmental partnership, in coordinated policy making and capacity building across states and sectors", not to mention promote tourism as well.
The BJP also says it would like to make the point of tackling climate change a part of its foreign policy. However, its proposed power generation strategy does also include coal, natural gas and oil, apart from wanting to maximise the potential of renewable energy sources. Moreover, it also promotes the use of carbon credits, which is an iffy idea as this is a very malleable system susceptible to abuse, especially by richer agents operating across borders.
"Take steps to increase the domestic coal exploration and production, to bridge the demand and supply gap. Oil and gas explorations would also be expedited in the country. This will also help to reduce the import bill."
Until here, not much is different from what the Congress is already promising, albeit with different names.
The BJP appears to be very pro-nuclear. Under its 'Cultural Heritage' section, the manifesto mentions Ram Setu in the context of its vast thorium deposits. How this is part of our cultural heritage, I'm not sure. The party also proposes to build "world class, regional centres of excellence of scientific research" for nanotechnology, material sciences, "thorium technology" and brain research. Sure, India has thorium reserves, but the design for a thorium-based nuclear power plant came out only in February 2014, and an operational system is only likely to be ready by the end of this decade.
If spending doesn't increase, these promises are meaningless. Moreover, there are also some pending Bills in the Lok Sabha concerning the setting up of new universities, as well as a materials science initiative named ISMER pending from 2011. With no concrete promises, will those initiatives set forth by the INC but not really followed through see the light of day?
In fact, two things trouble me.
- A no-mention of scientific research that is not aimed at improving the quality of life in a direct way, i.e. our space program, supercomputing capabilities, fundamental research, etc.
- How the private sector is likely to be motivated to invest in government-propelled R&D, to what extent, and if it will be allowed to enter sensitive areas like power generation.
Clearly, the manifesto is a crowd-pleaser, and to that end it has endeavoured to bend science to its will. In fact, there is nothing more troubling in the entire document than the BJP's intention to "set up institutions and launch a vigorous program to standardize and validate the Ayurvedic medicine". I get that they're trying to preserve our historical traditions, etc., but this sounds like an agenda of the Minitrue to me.
And before this line comes the punchline: "We will start integrated courses for Indian System of Medicine (ISM) and modern science and Ayurgenomics."