On the night of June 15, India faced the most serious national security crisis since the Kargil War in 1999. 20 Indian soldiers and an undeclared number of Chinese troops were killed in the Galwan Valley in Ladakh during a clash between Indian and Chinese troops.
This occurred following a build-up along the Line of Actual Control or LAC after the violent scuffle at Pangong Tso on May 5. Both sides continue to retain a large number of troops in the general Galwan area.
Here is a timeline of the latest stand-off on the LAC:
On the intervening night of May 5 and May 6, Indian and Chinese troops had a scuffle at Pangong Tso in Ladakh. This resulted in injuries in large numbers on both sides. Over 70 Indian Army personnel including a Commanding Officer were injured.
A clash between troops took place at Naku La in North Sikkim on May 9 resulting in injuries on both sides.
On May 18, China accused India of "tresspass" and building "illegal" infrastructure on the LAC. It accused the Indian Army of crossing into its territory and of “blocking” its patrols and “attempting to unilaterally change the status” on the LAC between the two countries in Sikkim and Ladakh.
On May 21, the Ministry of External Affairs rejected Beijing’s claim and said Chinese troops were "hindering normal patrols" by Indian soldiers.
Also read: Who does Galwan Valley belong to?
China said the border situation was "stable and controllable" on May 27. It said that both countries have proper mechanisms and communication channels to resolve the issues through dialogue and consultation.
On June 2, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh said Chinese troops were present at LAC "in large numbers".
India and China held crucial talks between senior military commanders on June 6 in an effort to ease the tension along the border. They identified five areas of conflict: Pangong Tso, Patrolling Point 14, 15, 17A and Chushul. They agreed on limited "disengagement" from some of the areas.
On June 10, Major General level talks were held. The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs said a positive consensus was reached at the June 6 talks and that the two sides were following this "consensus to take actions to ease the situation along the border."
On the intervening night of June 15 and June 16, 20 Indian soldiers were killed after a violent face-off with the Chinese People's Liberation Army in Galwan during the "de-escalation" process.
Three days later, on June 18, the Chinese released 10 Indian Army personnel , including a Lieutenant Colonel and three Majors, from their custody.
On June 19, China’s government said it claimed the entire Galwan valley, including to areas that are currently on India’s side of the LAC.