Opinion » Lead

Updated: March 24, 2012 00:04 IST

Dignity is her birthright

Prabha Sridevan
Comment (40)   ·   print   ·   T  T  

The state should not forget the human rights perspective while dealing with a victim of sexual violence. It should not doubly, trebly victimise her.

Women do not walk in a state of perpetual consent. But women do seem to labour under a delusion that it is safe for them to walk in public spaces, to travel in buses and trains. It obviously is not. They can be raped. It is difficult to understand rape. Rape is not about chastity or virginity. Long before these concepts were constructed, long before the institution of marriage was founded, a man raped a woman whenever he broke her sexual autonomy without her saying “yes.” It is a violation of her right to equality and her right to live with dignity which “We” promised ourselves when we gave to ourselves the Constitution. Surely women are included in the “We” of the Preamble, aren't they?

Rape is the destruction of dignity through invasion of another person's body without her consent. I use the word “her”, though the victim of this violence can be a child, a woman or a man. The anatomy of rape is common to all. But I will continue to use the pronoun “her”, since the majority of victims of sexual violence are female. Rape is a deliberate negation of the right over one's body.

This right is born with us. It does not require a development of maturity or the consciousness of one's body to acquire the right. So a girl child who is raped when she is 11 months old does not suffer less, nor is the crime less dark and bloody because the child does not know that she has the right not to be invaded. The consent that is required to make the sexual act not a rape must be understood as an active assent to the act. The consent cannot be presumed merely because a woman does not say “no”. She might not have said “no” because she was paralysed by fear, manacled by coercion or pounded by force. She might not have said no, because she was mentally damaged, incapable of making a decision in this regard; she might have been an infant, or disabled from moving because of physical incapacity. Yet it is rape. Only it is blacker if there is such a colour. It is the invasion of a woman who cannot say no.

Act of subjugation

It strips the victim of her dignity, it is intended to. It is an exertion of power, an act of subjugation, a statement that divests the victim of her right of control over herself and renders her an object. It is meant to objectify her. The dilution of the horror, by using words like “he lost control” is unjustified and is an insult to a woman. The violator does not lose control, but exerts control through the act of unspeakable violence.

In the Prosecutor v. Jean Paul Akayesu, the International Tribunal held that rape is a form of aggression, the central elements of which cannot be captured in a mechanical description of objects and body parts. It noted “the cultural sensitivities involved in public discussion of intimate matters and recalled the painful reluctance and inability of witnesses to disclose graphic anatomical details of the sexual violence they endured.” It was intended to reconstitute the law's perception of women's experience of sexual violence.

In a sensitisation programme for judicial officers, an exercise was given which would give a clue to the rape complainant's feelings in court. All judicial officers were asked to close their eyes and imagine the experience of their first union with their loved one. Then they were asked to narrate it to the colleague sitting on their right. They were horrified at this intrusion of their privacy. Then the trainers asked them: “If you cannot narrate a pleasant sexual experience to a friend without inhibition, how do you expect a frightened woman in a strange court hall to narrate fluently, in the presence of a battery of hostile lawyers, her devastating experience of sexual violence?” The officers had no answer.

But what is the reality? She is broken by having to repeat the incidence of rape again and again. “Madam, what was he wearing at the time of the occurrence? Did his tee shirt have a collar or no?” Oh yes, she can surely recall in vivid freeze-frames of “the occurrence.” And who will save her if she falters just once in the witness box? “See your Honour, the accused was wearing a blue striped chaddy, but she says red ... totally unreliable, Your Honour.” The Supreme Court has given strict guidelines on how her evidence should be weighed, and how her complaint should be assessed.

But a poor child who does not know an Ambassador from a Fiat was disbelieved by the trial court, until the Supreme Court came down with all its majesty to the rescue of the child and noted that the prosecutrix was a village girl studying in class 10 and her ignorance of the car brand, was irrelevant (State of Punjab v Gurmit Singh 1996 (2) SCC 384.)

'Distinct concepts'

In the Amnesty International publication, “Rape and sexual violence — human rights law and standards in international courts,” we read how the human rights perspective must never be forgotten while dealing with sexual violence.

Sexual autonomy cannot be understood outside the umbrella of human rights. Its violation must be criminalised. The report says, “Unfortunately, however, sexual autonomy is frequently conflated with narrow views of ‘consent' under domestic criminal law which do not capture the reality of how acts of rape and sexual violence are committed ... Sexual autonomy and consent are two distinct concepts. The concept of ‘consent' as used in domestic criminal law imports a notion of individual choice, typically without a consideration of the reality of abuse of power (whether evidenced through physical force, or other forms of coercion) and other factual conditions that may prevail before, during and perhaps after the sexual acts in question. A consideration of whether an individual was able to exercise sexual autonomy, by contrast, takes into account the overall dynamic and environment surrounding those sexual acts and how these had an impact on the victim's ability to make a genuine choice.”

A woman who is raped goes through a variety of feelings like denial, self-hate, grief, degradation, suicidal impulse and more. She falters in her narration, oh yes, she does, but not because she is a liar, but because the act of rape not only inflicts physical harm but also incalculable emotional and psychological harm. Chemical changes take place in her brain because of the trauma. She may go into a fantasy that someone will rescue her from this nightmare. Post-rape, she lives in a smoke world of truth and untruth, denial and depression, nothing is the same any more. She is screaming on the inside “please, please put the clock back.” This is just a short, incomplete statement of what is happening on the inside.

What is happening on the outside? The whole family is devastated, it even looks at her as if she somehow brought it on herself. “Why did you go there?,” “I told you not to wear that” and so on. So the woman wonders if the first enemy is the family. It is not in every case that the woman actually lodges a complaint, because she and her family know what will follow the complaint is worse. It is hell. It is not necessary to give the details of the experience on the way to the police station and inside the precincts thereof. The world looks at her as if she carries a stain on her all the time. She may never be allowed to forget the occurrence. So will a woman lie that she was raped?

The Amnesty International report reminds us that women and girls are not “likely to make false accusations of rape and sexual violence. This is a particularly irrational stereotype as women and girl complainants usually have very little to gain and everything to lose by making allegations of rape, there is rarely an incentive for them to lie; many complainants pursue their search for truth and justice at enormous cost to themselves, in terms of stigma and rejection by their families and communities.”

In this harsh reality, society and especially the state and courts must remember that they shall not doubly and trebly victimise her, nor raise a cacophony of distrust. It will only silence the voices against this horror.

(The writer is a former judge of the Madras High Court and Chairman of the Intellectual Property Appellate Board.)


Facing up to rapeMay 18, 2012

More In: Lead | Opinion

Kudos to the author and "Hindu" for making efforts in order to enlighten mango people and make them aware of the vicious consequences of the heinous crime rape is.
Also, i would only be dissatisfied with the concluding remarks of the writer on the questions of whether a woman would ever lie about the forceful physical intrusion into her life in order to gain impeccable gain of which only she can justify.
Altogether I feel the need of the hour is to educate the youth about the control over the self in order to respect the denial of the opposite sex to comply with his physical desires which can increase the moral conduct and help us in creating a highly respectable, socially enlightened society in which every action of an individual will be backed up by his genuine moral judgements.

from:  Kaushik
Posted on: Apr 4, 2012 at 10:57 IST

Thanks your honor for writing such an excellent article. I feel rape
and other acts of violence inflicted on women can only be curbed and
eliminated if the male mindset of dominance and control can be
changed. The basic premise behind rape, as I feel, is not sexual
satisfaction, rather its the need to exert physical and mental control
over the victim. I think the only plausible and feasible solution is
biological rather than legal. To start with, drugs and therapies need
to be developed which if administered from very infant stage will make
male less aggressive or more meek, basically, controlling their
hormones. Castration is the ultimate solution, but before that step,
if biologically drugs can be administered to make the male species
meeker, I think, the solution can be achieved at least partially if
not wholly. And yes, I am a male who is conceptualizing this concept.

from:  Ayan
Posted on: Mar 30, 2012 at 12:37 IST

A punching article with valid and reasonable explanations. Also would be great if you could propogate the rights and defence mechanisms a women could take at these circumstances and acceptable by law. This would be of great learning and result in a better preparedness for the women folk.

from:  Vinu
Posted on: Mar 26, 2012 at 22:16 IST

Really a very good heart touching article after a long time. The facts presented in the article are happening daily in our country and the response what we are receiving from our constitution indeed is silencing the voices against the horor.

from:  Urvashi
Posted on: Mar 26, 2012 at 15:19 IST

Pick up a newspaper and you will be disgusted to see the "unbearable” forms this horrendous crime has evolved into. What description do we expect from a girl who has been raped by 14 men in Indore? Or by an infant who only knows how to smile and cry? Most of the women have gone through some kind of assault on their body - Rape being the extreme of all. We are the unfortunate lot who after being raped are advised by our guards to lock ourselves after 8 pm – pretending that we can’t be molested there. All hopes of a “safe” environment are diminishing with every incident. We read and forget – but the victims suffer for rest of their life – and we want to know the color of the “chaddy” of the rapist from them! Shame.

from:  Chetna Verma
Posted on: Mar 26, 2012 at 14:28 IST

Truly speaking, I could not complete reading the whole article. It was too penetrative, too resolute and too critical. Great thoughts from a great person, a few who are changing our destiny. It does not require enactment of a constitution to respect women. Rape as it is, is an atrocity not only against a woman or human being but against humanity. The Hon'ble judge had brought out the trauma faced by the victim and her family so well. I wish to add that the perpetrators should only be handed capital punishment and nothing less.

from:  V P Srikanth
Posted on: Mar 26, 2012 at 10:17 IST

Kudos to the writer for giving the article an angle unexplored in the issue of rape. It is important to safeguard the identity of the woman who's been raped even in the police station and if possible, the court and family, especially, should give her utmost care and concern to mitigate for the traumatic experience.

from:  priyanka
Posted on: Mar 26, 2012 at 00:03 IST

Congrats mam for writing such a nice piece. There are several instances when people try to write off rape as an act of lust but i would say it much more cases it is an act of deliberate subjugation of giving the ultimate shame to a female. Whether it be cases of elopement in villages or a spurned lover, they all turn to rape to give that ultimate punishment, not to the body but to the soul.And that is why, the punishment must be commensurate. The judicial process must be strengthened to make it viable for a victim to get justice. Again congratulation for highlighting the cause so perfectly.

from:  Kartika
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 22:55 IST

Its an excellent article.Such panic incidents can't be articulated. Though, we were in 21st century,growing technically fast, we should still feel coy for the position of women in the society[i.e;problems like dowry,domestic violence,offence against them.. etc].A few Working women and students also facing problems in offices,colleges/schools.To eradicate all this,the accused should be punished severely ,which that makes all others should be panic in order to make offence on any women.

from:  Naveen
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 18:56 IST

excellent article...
the exercise undertaken by the judges is self explanatory of the impasse
faced by the victims in explaining the details of the heinous crime...

from:  ajeet
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 17:04 IST

This is a very sensitive article. I appreciate the article & agree with the author in his agony towards the society, but this is only one >aspect of crimes in the present society. In fact there are many such brutal activities hunting the society including murders, corruption etc.

from:  T S ANIRUDH
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 15:34 IST

I was recently reading a book on the decline of violence by the psychologist Steven Pinker and was shocked to learn that for much of history(in the West), the justice system and courts of law considered the act of rape to be an act against the father/husband/brother of the woman. In other words, the victim of rape was the taken to be the male who "owned" the woman who was raped. While the west has largely moved on because of a half-a-century of the feminist movement, our society still remains strongly patriarchal. This, for me, explains the startlingly insensitive and uncomfortable reaction that the rape victim faces when she reveals the crime to the police, to her family, to her friends and society at large. Things will change slowly, much as it has done in the west, when a woman is seen foremost as an individual, with all the rights to freedom, liberty and speech accorded to any other human being, rather than as daughters and sisters and wives.

from:  Raamganesh
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 15:12 IST

i commend Hindu and author for publishing this article. i don't know
whether there is any timeline of judgement for such type of cases .if
there is no such type of provision then there should be . its a need
of time. it should be applied so that victim could get justice on

from:  ashish tripathi
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 13:56 IST

Thanks to The Hindu for publishing such a proviking article and also
thanks to the author for writing this article...
Though we are growing faster technically , economically but our
women are facing many troubles . Recently a judgement given in a rape case of a girl who had been raped and was murdered . She worked for BPO and she was raped by cab driver . This happened two years before and judgement was given last monday. Our laws should also be strict and they should be redisgned for our present conditions and the punishment should be severe and the remaining should not dare to attempt these type of activities. Actually why all these are happening , though we are emerging as fast developing countries, why we are unable to provide safety and security? How psychologically and physically women suffer from these sexual harassment , in any where like cinema theatres , buses, offices etc. There must to be an end to this. The younger generation should be educated on these things.

from:  Sobha
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 11:51 IST

You cant describe the love making spiritual act to a third person but
sexual assault, striping dignity of a woman, rape is a crime of worst
nature which needed to be dealt with strict laws has to be told.
Though the author has tried her best to describe the trauma of a
victim but none could fathom the trauma except the victim. Post-
incidence handling of the case needed to be impeccably sensitive. I
feel (in Indian context) in almost all steps in the post-crime process
i.e. counseling, medical examination, complaint lodging, hearing of
the case female candidates should be appointed. Rape is a crime which
leaves lifetime trauma as the author has described in "put the clock
back" lines.
Protecting the right to live with dignity guaranteed by the
constitution is the duty of state,and they must ensure it by strident
laws and acts, working places must be made highly safe and secured.

from:  jeewan
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 09:53 IST

Preventive steps must also include educating young generation of boys about what rape is. Explaining them at young age about the psychological pain that a woman goes through, will make them empathize. At a young age, such an empathy will have long lasting effect. Also, there are lots of wrong notions that are told to young generation of teen boys about sex. There is a need to educate young generation about emotional and social impacts of various manifestations of this act. Recommend reading 'Half the Sky - Turning oppression into opportunity'.

from:  Afroz
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 08:19 IST

I am expat Indian woman,who has recently relocated to India. Having said that, I read with horror the recent gang rape in Gurgaon and sadly how acceptable it seems in this part of the world, given the lady in question was even denied basic civic rights in timely police intervention! I remain deeply affected by merely reading the news bit; its close to impossible to even remotely understand what the victim must have gone through, let alone expect her to have to rant her account in public. This is an excellent article and I encourage more active participation from the greater masses towards the sensitive issue of rape. In a nation where we have women taking strides in every leadership aspect, including heading the nation, its pitiful to see what women outside this radar is deprived of.

from:  Sandhya Menon
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 06:57 IST

A very commendable and much appreciated article on the subject. Hopefully, there
would be a change in the approach of the society, judiciary & police stations.

from:  Lakshmi
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 03:37 IST

The last few lines of the article takes about the family reaction. I
have to add that this kind of fault-finding by the family is extremely
common in Indian families. For any incident, (male or female) the
family's first reaction is "I told you not to do that!", "Why would you
do that?!?". I feel it is just one of the WORST codified family
mechanisms in our country. There has to be a better way for families to
show their love. (and there definitely is).

from:  Anoop R
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 03:09 IST

Its an excellent cum brilliant article that narrates a sexual violence against women.In this article, the exercise made to the judicial officers was a brilliant thought.Such panic incidents can't be articulated. Though, we were in 21st century, we should still feel coy for the position of women in the society[i.e;problems like dowry,domestic violence,offence against them.. etc].A few Working women and students also experiencing sexual assault in offices,colleges/schools.The most curse, male domination.
1.As per my view,A women is not an object.She is also a human-being like male.No one should see them leniently.We should be courteous against them.They are also equally important in family as well as in society.
2.Everyone should shed this gender difference.
3.And finally,chastity/virginity not only mean to women,its for men too.As per my opinion even a husband should not even touch her without her saying "Yes".

from:  Priya
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 02:56 IST

This is a great article. You have well implied that they have to
explain the horrible incident happened with them to police and
sometimes police do take interest listening rather than taking action.
Delhi has more police force than in they have London but perhaps there
are more such incidents happening around day by day. And there is also
a weak point in law to hang someone in the case of Rape and sometimes
lack of support from family as they are already frightened so do they
lose the courage to speak out. In my view people will keep doing such
atrocious things until there is no such a law which can instill fear in
the people. Lastly it was really a thought provoking article.

from:  Kushwaha
Posted on: Mar 25, 2012 at 01:22 IST

Indeed it is very educative article and it throws light on many aspects
of rape and its after shock effect. It indicates in the most befitting
manner as to how the rape case is to be handled. However, a big question
lies whether it would be? Could I seek author's permission to translate
the same in our state language Gujarati and try to get it published in
local news paper? The city of Surat has big number of rape cases.

from:  Rajendra Karnik Surat
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 23:07 IST

the article , a brilliant one , is a telling commentary upon our social environ that has the sanction of our age-old customs ; nowadays our Lord Krishna doesn't come to the rescue of the hapless victims of sex-assault ; only the women's organizations step in where our gods & guardians of law wantonly fail.

from:  samikkannu
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 22:39 IST

This is an absolutely brilliant article.A number of rape victims have had gone through an even greater trauma in the form of lack of support from the family, society and not to forget the judiciary apart from the sexual assault. While the act itself is demeaning and deteriorating, the approach of the judicial proceedings only makes life bitter for the victim. In such scenarios, this article is a thought provoking one.

from:  Jeeva
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 19:50 IST

Nothing to say...just this editorial brought tears in my eyes....hope every devil will understand the trauma of victims.

from:  Safiullah Ansari
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 18:09 IST

i would like to agree with the point the author makes about women not reporting that they have been raped.the educated women,knows her rights as a citizen and seeks justice, but what about the illiterate women or the women who is unaware of her rights. she is scared and threatened against seeking help. her family may also not support her. instead of going out with it, she buries the trauma inside herself which often leads to suicide. though the government is taking steps to help the victims, there should also be campaigns,demonstrations etc to spread legal awareness.

from:  kavya reddy
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 17:44 IST

I completely agree with the erstwhile judge that women are highly unlikely to lie about being sexually violated, especially Indian women. Yes, people most certainly have the right to not be violated and rape is certainly a form of egregious physical and emotional violence. Nevertheless, the concept of consent cannot be dismissed as the former judge seems to have done. The stigma associated with rape is not as potent in the West where chastity is the object of ridicule. The example of Julian Assange's battle against not one but TWO accusers does raise a few eyebrows. Practically-speaking, consent is definitely relevant, but the view that the accused must prove his innocence when indicted is also a vital factor in India. Rapists must be prosecuted! A stern message does need to go out to everybody in the country. The prevailing message in India seems to be that the crime of rape will be accepted within "ambient crime", and the issue of rape seems to be worst in the states run by ladies.

from:  Samir Mody
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 16:30 IST

Full support to the article. Incidences of rape indicate instincts of some of us are still wild, despite all the evolution humanity has gone through. I honestly wish our society was a matriarchy. Men must pay for the trauma and horror they commit upon innocent females. Civil codes must be repealed. Women must really be empowered.

from:  Rohit Srivastava
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 14:59 IST

I believe it's the wisdom to respect the freedom and dignity of those beings around us that distinguish men from beast. Now the questions to be asked are 1. what are the factors that deprives men of this wisdom? 2. when you are convinced that one lacks such wisdom does he/she still qualify or deserve to be treated as human?. The answer to first one is rather simple, every sin arises from ignorance (courtesy: Lord Krishna), the delusion that you are nothing more than what a mirror can reflect and that the prime objective of your being is to nurture the passion that your body instills on you. Indians knew this better than any one else, born anywhere else on earth simply because this is the idea that every stone and dust of this nation tried to carry forward through the generations that have flourished in this soil. But then why are we in this state of turmoil? It's because we have ignored what our mother tried to teach us. "To that heaven of freedom my FATHER, let my country awake".

from:  rahul
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 13:04 IST

The Hindu has done excellent service by publishing this thought provoking article on the law relating to the Rape. Every person first try to put the blame on the victim for the assault on her and our Police Stations-especially those in the backward areas of the country do not show any enthusiasm in accepting a complait and file a case .They are steeped in medieval mindset and if the victim is poor or any class having adverse social or financial group the officers-in many cases turn the table on the complainant.A case for reference is the jailing of a pre--teen girm when she went to file complaint.
India NEEDS Special Police Cells in EVERY VILLAGE,TOWN AND CITIES where women officers -trained in traumatic counselling-are posted and the Judicial officers as well as Gynaecologists affiliated to it for prompt action against the perpetrator and for immediate medical examination.The social workers as well police officials should spread awareness among people.

from:  Arackal Narayanan
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 12:22 IST

I was recently reading a book on the decline of violence by the psychologist Steven Pinker and was shocked to learn that for much of history(in the West), the justice system and courts of law considered the act of rape to be an act against the father/husband/brother of the woman. In other words, the victim of rape was the taken to be the male who "owned" the woman who was raped. While the west has largely moved on because of a half-a-century of the feminist movement, our society still remains strongly patriarchal. This, for me, explains the startlingly insensitive and uncomfortable reaction that the rape victim faces when she reveals the crime to the police, to her family, to her friends and society at large. Things will change slowly as it has done in the west when a women is seen foremost as an individual, with all the rights to freedom, liberty and speech accorded to any other human being, rather than as daughters and sisters and wives.

from:  Raamganesh
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 11:50 IST

Kudos to The Hindu for carrying such a thought provoking article. Men who victimise womwn in any manner, sexual or otherwise, need to be brought to book. However, apart from meting out exemplary punishment to perpetuators of crimes against women, there is an urgent need to make people aware of human rights and this can start at the school level. Newspapers such as The Hindu can take the lead in builing up public opinion against such crimes. Courts too can contribute by handing out with decisions in quick time. one more point. Even married women have rights but are they recognised and respected by their families or even by society.

from:  Venkatesh
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 11:24 IST

the author is true about the position of women in our society. it's sad that the judiciary or the society seems to turn a blind eye or indifferent towards the condition of women or whether they really seem not to care at all. no wonder many suffer the trauma silently or many cases go unreported.

from:  Mungmung
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 10:41 IST

Excellent article, though excluding the male victims. The rape can be controlled through pre-ocurrence and post-occurrence measures. The pre-occurrence (prevetive) must get higher importance as post-occurrence measures are not compensative enough for the victims (even the death of the rapist). The preventive measures should include educating children of all disciplines about the social behaviour (mannerisms, dress code, personal security gadgets etc), and maintaining healthy environment in family and educational institutions. The post-occurrence measures should include using advanced methods of truth-verifying and investigative techniques in establishing the occurrence and deciding the punishment, and rehabilitative programs for the victims.

from:  VMN Sharma
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 10:31 IST

Thank you for writing this article, one of the best I have read on this
subject !

from:  MS
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 08:40 IST

Hard hitting article.I commend the Hindu for publishing this article.Hopefully, it'll contribute to sensitising our people to the horror and barbarism of rape.

from:  Akhil
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 07:47 IST

I wonder why the victims aren't allowed to narrate/record their experience to women officers of the court behind closed doors. Will that somewhat mitigate the effect of having to recall the rape occurrence?

from:  D. Chandramouli
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 05:20 IST

This is an excellent article that gives a strong argument on how to
tackle the issue at a legal standpoint. However, I beg to differ with
one point the author made. The statement in the last few lines of the
article that touches on whether a female will lie or not, contradicts
the whole article itself. Every case has to be handled on a case to
case basis, trying to deliver accurate judgement rather than
generalize the whole situation by exonerating any group of humans,
either by gender or any other factor by the statement that the group
will not lie or commit perjury. We should also give consideration to
the justice system that laws have to be upheld without emotional
attachment as that can open up a whole new can of worms.

from:  Bhargav
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 02:35 IST

Excellent article your honor. I remember reading a supreme court judgement recently which I Inferred as "The onus of proving innocence lies on the alleged wrong doer. Its is sufficient if a victim declares that her modesty has been outraged"
I was so happy with this judgement. Not sure if my inference was correct but I hope it was and in that case wanted to know if such judgments can be used in the field courts to protect the victims. None the less, appreciate your article and insight.

from:  mahesh
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 02:19 IST

All respests for the author for such a beautiful article but I think the author has somehow pushed limits in commenting about the institution of marriage. What i gathered from her words is that marriage gives men legal right to rape a woman which I think is not correct also I feel that the author presented the picture of women as meek and incapable , not all women are like that, also she should specify which strata of women she is commenting upon since women exposed to different upbringing and environment will have differences too in their representation of consent over sexuality.

from:  chhavi chawla
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 01:09 IST
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