The Central Board of Secondary Education answers questions relating to its examinations from The Hindu's readers. Readers are welcome to send in more questions, primarily those relating to the Class X and XII examinations, to cbsehelp@thehindu.co.in, which will be forwarded to the CBSE. Answers to a select number of them will be published in these columns. The purpose of this series is also to help students overcome examination-related stress.

I am in Class X. I could not appear for my SA1 English exam in Class IX. Will it affect my Class X board internal exam?

Vipin Chamaria

The overall grades in various subjects at the end of Class X are arrived at on the basis of performance of students in formative and summative assessments of Class X only. These grades are based on absolute marks. Depending on the total marks a student receives in all FAs and SAs of Class X taken together, will her/his final grade be decided.

Which book to be consulted for Class X boards ? As I have opted for Boards, is it necessary to practise based on guides and other study material or is NCERT textbooks enough?

B. Abishek

The CBSE prescribes only NCERT textbooks for its Secondary Examinations except in subjects for which it has developed its own textbooks.

I am a private candidate appearing for Class XII. I have received my admit card. Should I get the photo attested by the Head of the institution?

Ashwin Gupta

The photo on the admit card if not attested earlier by the Head of the institution may now be attested before appearing for the Board exam.

In the Class X Board exam, marks are awarded strictly according to the valuation key provided. But a question may be solved in more than one way. Hence possible alternative solutions must be given in the key. Intelligent students should not be penalised simply because they have solved the problem in a different but correct way.

Gitasshri Suresh

The Marking Scheme prepared by the CBSE gives full credit to alternative correct and relevant answers even if they are not covered therein.

I am a Class XII student. Are the following topics included? Chemistry: P-Block elements: preparation of all the compounds given in that chapter from all the groups. Maths: Vector Algebra: Cauchy-Schwarts Inequality

Steve Jaison

P-Block elements: preparation of all compounds except hydrochloric acid, inter-halogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens is included in the syllabus.

Cauchy-Schwarts Inequality is included in the syllabus.

I am in Class XII humanities stream with maths as an optional subject. Please clarify: 1. Changes in history question paper pattern.

2. Is circular flow of income in 3 sector economy included in Economics? 3. Are all questions in miscellaneous exercises in maths evaluative? 4. Are demand and supply stock concepts? 5. List of maps to be studied in history? 6. Are there any deleted portions in XII syllabus?

Manu

For question Nos. 1 and 5, kindly refer to the Circular No., 55 dated August 2, 2011 uploaded on the CBSE website with the URL address: http://cbse.nic.in/circulars/cir55-2011.pdf. 2. No. 3. Questions in the Board's Question Papers are strictly based on the prescribed syllabus. 4. Demand and Supply are flow concepts because they are measured during a period of time. 6. Regarding the syllabi in all subjects for Board Examinations, kindly refer to the Senior School Curriculum Document 2012.

I am a Class XII student. In the chapter ‘P-Block elements', should I have to learn the preparation, properties and uses of all the elements given in the NCERT Chemistry book?

Aravind G.S.

In P-Block elements, you have to learn the following:

Group - 15 Elements: general introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, Phosphorous – allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PC13, PC15) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group - 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, simple oxides, Ozone, Sulphure-allotropic from; compounds of sulphure: sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphure (Structures only).

Group - 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, hydrochloric acid interhalogen compounds, ox acids of halogens (structures only).

Group - 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Also please refer to the syllabus of Class XII Chemistry for 2012 Board examination available on CBSE website www.cbse.nic.in under the section of examination.

I am in Class XI. The Board has changed the question paper design of the History paper with effect form 2012 Board exams. In an interview, the CBSE chairman has said that changes of similar nature will be brought about in other subjects too with effect from 2013. Kindly let me know what are the changes planned.

There are rumours that the CBSE has published supplementary reading material in Economics for Class XII. Is it enough if we read just the NCERT textbooks to score high in Economics or is supplementary reading required?

Sridhar Krishnan, Saraswathi Vidyalaya, Thiruvananthapuram.

The information about any such changes will be intimated to the schools in due course of time.

The Supplementary Material in Economics for Class XI and XII is available on the CBSE website under Books and Support materials of the Examination Section.

I am in Class XII in maths-computer stream. Will questions from the following topics be repeated for the Board exam: linked list, linked stack, linked queue and arrays?

Alex Alfred

Linked list is not included in the syllabus of Class XII. However, linked stack, linked queue and arrays are included in the syllabus of Computer Science for Class XII, 2012 Board exam.

I have finished my Class XI exams and I would like to know about the kind of preparation required throughout the year to score a 95 per cent and above in my Board exams. Is studying NCERT books sufficient?

Rajesh Jain

As far as the textbooks are concerned, CBSE recommends only the NCERT textbooks. At this point of time, one should be only concentrating on preparation rather than targeting any score.

It will automatically follow. However, in order to get good marks, study regularly and thoroughly. Consult Sample Question papers and previous years' questions which will be soon uploaded on the CBSE website for the Board Examination 2013.

Are the additional questions given at the end of the chapters in NCERT textbook for Physics included in the syllabus for Class XII Board exam?

Muddaththir Alee

If the questions given at the end of the chapter are based on the syllabus given in the curriculum document of Physics for Class XII, 2012 Board examination, they are included in the syllabus.

For Class XII, what are the topics not included for the Board exam in Physics, Chemistry and Maths?

D. Sushmitha

Please refer to the syllabus of Class XII Chemistry for 2012 Board exam available on the CBSE website www.cbse.nic.in under the section of examination.

For Class XII, is the information given in blue boxes in the Physics textbook evaluative? Are the structures of n-bases given in the Chemistry textbook meant to be studied?

Akshay Dinesan

Blue boxes given inside the content are not evaluative. However, the summary of the chapter given at the end should be studied.

The structures of n-bases are not included in the Chemistry syllabus for Class XII, 2012 Board exam.

In your answer to a question by a Class XII student, you have said that the topics Electro Chemistry: Corrosion, Surface Chemistry: Catalysis, P block elements: Group 15 (structures of Oxides of Nitrogen), Group 16 (Dioxygen preparation properties and uses of Sulphur dioxide) and Group 17 (preparation properties and uses of Chlorine) are not included. But, out of my experience I feel that these portions are included. Please clarify.

K.V. Seetha lakshmi, PGT Chemistry, KV Meenambakkam, Chennai.

The answers given in reply to the questions asked by a Class XII student (Anu Environ) are all correct as per the syllabus of Chemistry for Class XII, 2012 Board exam. Please refer to the syllabus available on CBSE website: www.cbse.nic.in under the examination section for further clarification.

I am in Class X. I would like to know the answer to this question from the chapter ‘Heredity and Evolution' (Page 147). A man with blood group A marries a woman with blood group O and their daughter has blood group O. Is this information enough to tell you which of the traits - blood group A or O - is dominant? Why or why not?

Nimmikrishna .B

This information is not sufficient to decide which blood group is dominant or recessive. The concept of multiple alleles is required to be able to decide the same.

Please clarify if the following topics are included: 1. Solid state: packing efficiency 2. Solutions: vapour pressure of liquid solutions, ideal and non-ideal solutions 3. Chemical kinetics: pseudo first order reaction, temperature dependence of rate 4. Surface chemistry: catalysis, preparation and purification of colloids 5. Coordination compounds: Werner's theory, stability of coordination compounds

Aishwarya

Packing efficiency, ideal and non-ideal solutions, pseudo first order reaction, catalysis, preparation and purification of colloids, Werner's theory, stability of coordination compounds are not included in the syllabus of Chemistry, Class XII, 2012 Board exam. However, vapour pressure of liquid solutions and temperature dependence of rate are included in the syllabus.

I am in Class XII. 1. Please provide some tips for efficient management of time in attempting questions of different sections. 2. What are the portions not included for Board exam in Physics and Chemistry? 3. Is working with NCERT and sample papers enough for scoring high marks in Physics and Chemistry?

Remya R.S

1. In a three-hour paper, you should first attempt the known and familiar questions and then attempt questions which need thinking on your part or the questions about which you are unsure. 2. For the syllabus of Physics and Chemistry, please refer to the curriculum document (Sr. Secondary) of 2012 available on CBSE website www.cbse.nic.in under the section of examination. 3. If you concentrate on NCERT textbook and CBSE Sample Question Papers along with a few more Sample Question Papers, then you are sure to get high marks.

I want to do automobile engineering. After Class X which stream should I choose?

Sarath Nair

For automobile engineering, it is suggested that you take Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Engineering Graphics / Computer Science in Classes XI and XII.

I am in Class X. In our Geography textbook it is mentioned that the north-south corridor starts from Srinagar, but in the map shown it starts from Uri. Please clarify.

Vishnu Raj, Army School, Kannur

Your answer should be Srinagar.

For Class XII Accountancy board exam, how many marks will be allotted for calculation of amounts while writing the journal entries for company accounts (shares and debentures)? Will full marks be awarded even if there is a slight difference in amount calculation?

Namita

In Company Accounts, marks are assigned according to the journal entries. If the amount is wrong, the entry is considered incorrect. Hence no marks will be awarded.

I am in Class X studying five subjects. I have opted for ‘Foundation of IT' as an additional subject. Will the additional subject be taken into consideration while calculating the CGPA?

Sripada Chaitanya

The marks of sixth additional subject will not be taken into consideration for calculating CGPA.

How do I take the printout of the choice of date slip? The AIEEE website says the selection of date is over.

Sneha Sampath S

The Board will issue Admit Card in due course of time which will also include printout of the choice of date slip.