NATIONAL

China’s appetite leaves nets empty

At a disadvantage:Fishermen pull in their nets in Joal, Senegal, where overfishing has caused stocks to plummet. The chief culprit is China’s large distant-waters fishing fleet, whose vessels flout local laws and scoop up as much fish in a week as Senegalese boats catch in a year.NYT

At a disadvantage:Fishermen pull in their nets in Joal, Senegal, where overfishing has caused stocks to plummet. The chief culprit is China’s large distant-waters fishing fleet, whose vessels flout local laws and scoop up as much fish in a week as Senegalese boats catch in a year.NYT  

Unsustainable fishing practices threaten the developing world, which depends on sea for income, food

Once upon a time, the seas teemed with mackerel, squid and sardines, and life was good. But now, on opposite sides of the globe, sun-creased fishermen lament as they reel in their nearly empty nets.

“Your net would be so full of fish, you could barely heave it onto the boat,” said Mamadou So, 52, a fisherman in Senegal, gesturing to the meagre assortment of tiny fish flapping in his wooden canoe.

A world away in eastern China, Zhu Delong, 75, also shook his head as his net dredged up a disappointing array of pinkie-size shrimp and fledgling yellow croakers. “When I was a kid, you could cast a line out your back door and hook huge yellow croakers,” he said. “Now the sea is empty.”

Overfishing is depleting oceans across the globe, with 90% of the world’s fisheries fully exploited or facing collapse, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. From Russian king crab fishermen in the west Bering Sea to Mexican ships that poach red snapper off the coast of Florida, unsustainable fishing practices threaten the well-being of millions of people in the developing world who depend on the sea for income and food, experts say.

But China, with its enormous population, growing wealth to buy seafood and the world’s largest fleet of deep-sea fishing vessels, is having an outsize effect.

Exploiting farther seas

Having depleted the seas close to home, Chinese fishermen are sailing farther to exploit the waters of other countries, their journeys often subsidised by a government more concerned with domestic unemployment and food security than the health of the world’s oceans and the countries that depend on them.

Increasingly, China’s growing armada of distant-water fishing vessels is heading to the waters of West Africa, drawn by corruption and weak enforcement by local governments. West Africa, experts say, now provides the vast majority of the fish caught by China’s distant-water fleet. And by some estimates, as many as two-thirds of those boats engage in fishing that contravenes international or national laws.

China’s distant-water fishing fleet has grown to nearly 2,600 vessels (the U.S. has fewer than one-tenth as many), with 400 boats coming into service between 2014 and 2016 alone.

Most of the Chinese ships are so large that they scoop up as many fish in one week as Senegalese boats catch in a year, costing West African economies $2 billion per year, according to a new study published by the journal Frontiers in Marine Science .

Government subsidies

Many of the Chinese boat owners rely on government money to build vessels and fuel their journeys to Senegal, a month-long trip from crowded ports in China.

Overall, government subsidies to the fishing industry reached nearly $22 billion between 2011 and 2015, nearly triple the amount spent during the previous four years, according to Zhang Hongzhou, a research fellow at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

That figure, he said, does not include the tens of millions in subsidies and tax breaks that coastal Chinese cities and provinces provide to support local fishing companies.

“Chinese fleets are all over the world now, and without these subsidies, the industry just wouldn’t be sustainable,” said Li Shuo, a global policy adviser at Greenpeace East Asia. “For Senegal and other countries of West Africa, the impact has been devastating.”

In Senegal, an impoverished nation of 14 million, fishing stocks are plummeting.

“We are facing an unprecedented crisis,” said Alassane Samba, a former director of Senegal’s oceanic research institute. “If things keep going the way they are, people will have to eat jellyfish to survive.”

When it comes to global fishing operations, China is the indisputable king of the sea. It is the world’s biggest seafood exporter, and its population accounts for more than one-third of all fish consumption, a figure growing by 6% a year.

The nation’s fishing industry employs more than 14 million people, up from 5 million in 1979, with 30 million others relying on fish for their livelihoods.

“The truth is, traditional fishing grounds in Chinese waters exist in name only,” said Zhang of Nanyang University. “For China’s leaders, ensuring a steady supply of aquatic products is not just about good economics but social stability and political legitimacy.”

Maritime disputes

But as they press toward other countries, Chinese fishermen have become entangled in a growing number of maritime disputes.

Indonesia has impounded scores of Chinese boats caught poaching in its waters, and in March last year, Argentine authorities sank a Chinese vessel that tried to ram a coast guard boat.

Dyhia Belhabib, a fisheries expert trying to quantify illegal fishing along the African coast, said Chinese boats were among the worst offenders; in West Africa, they report just 8% of their catch, compared with 29% for European-flagged vessels, she said.

According to her estimates, Chinese boats steal 40,000 tons of fish per year from Senegalese waters, an amount worth roughly $28 million.

Beijing has become sensitive to accusations that its huge fishing fleet is helping push fish stocks to the brink of collapse.

The government says it is aggressively reducing fuel subsidies — by 2019 they will have been cut by 60%, according to a fishery official — and pending legislation would require all distant-water vessels manufactured in China to register with the government, enabling better monitoring.NYT

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