• The chess world was rattled in late 2022 when Magnus Carlsen, the current world champion, accused Hans Niemann, a 19-year-old U.S. chess grandmaster, of cheating using a chess-playing artificial intelligence (AI) system.
  • A month later, a 72-page investigation report drafted by Chess.com claimed that Niemann had “likely cheated” more than a hundred times while playing online chess. But the report also said, “There is no direct evidence that proves Hans cheated at the September 4, 2022, game with Magnus.”
  • Carlsen has expressed a belief that cheating is “an existential threat” to chess. It might be tempting, against this backdrop, to see the future of this 1,500-year-old game lying even in part in the hands of the Carlsen-Niemann case, specifically in the proper use of statistics and their interpretation.