December 2014: German broadcaster ARD airs documentary alleging systematic doping in Russian athletics. WADA sets up an independent commission.
August 2015: ARD airs second documentary based on a leaked IAAF database, revealing “extraordinary” levels of doping.
November 2015: WADA’s report calls for an international ban of Russia’s track and field team. The IAAF Council suspends the team. WADA also suspends Russia’s national anti-doping body.
May 2016: The former head of Russia's anti-doping laboratory, Grigory Rodchenkov, exiled in the United States, describes an organised doping campaign with the close involvement of the sports ministry and the FSB security service.
Three days after calling the claims “absurd”, Russian sports minister Vitaly Mutko says he is “ashamed and sorry”.
June 2016: Another ARD programme claims that the Russian authorities have been covering up for coaches disgraced by the doping programme.
The IAAF Council unanimously votes to extend the ban, but offers an Olympic lifeline to athletes training outside the Russian system to compete as neutrals.
July 10, 2016: The IAAF clears only US-based long jumper Darya Klishina to compete in Rio, after 136 Russian athletes apply for exemption from the blanket ban. 800-metre runner and whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova was cleared earlier.
July 18, 2016: Canadian law professor Richard McLaren releases a 96-page report for WADA which outlines rampant Russian state-run doping at the Sochi Olympics and other major events.
WADA consequently calls for Russia to be banned from Rio.
July 19, 2016: Mutko is barred from attending the Rio Games. The IOC puts back a decision on whether to bar Russia’s athletics team.
July 21, 2016: The Court of Arbitration of Sport (CAS) upholds the validity of the IAAF ban.