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Fabiola Gianotti (in red) heads the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

The Sunday Quiz | Easy like Sunday morning: Women in science

Women's day quiz | "Be less curious about people and more curious about ideas": Marie Curie

The Sunday Quiz | Easy like Sunday morning: Women in science

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1. Kamala Sohonie was the first woman in India to be granted a Ph.D. in a scientific discipline. When she first applied to a certain prestigious institution for a research fellowship, the Director, Nobel Laureate C.V. Raman, refused, saying women were not competent to pursue research. After she held a satyagraha outside his office, he relented, but put down strict conditions that she accepted, though she was insulted. At which institution was she the very first woman researcher?

Answer :

The Indian Institute of Science (IISc)

1. Patricia Bath was the first woman to lead a postgraduate training programme in ophthalmology. In 1986, she became the first African-American woman to obtain a medical patent, for her device, the Laserphaco Probe. The probe improved the use of lasers to quickly and near-painlessly remove a certain eye condition, and restored vision in people who had been unable to see for decades. What eye condition did Bath treat with her device?

Answer :

Cataracts

1. Lise Meitner was forced to flee her German lab due to her Jewish ancestry. Working from another country, she realised that a certain element was splitting in half and releasing some of its tremendous store of nuclear energy by nuclear fission. This was published in 1939 and it helped pioneer research that led to the use of nuclear reactors to generate electricity. She was unjustly deprived of a Nobel Prize in 1944 but had element 109, Meitnerium, named after her. Which element did she work on that changed history?

Answer :

Uranium

1. Born in 1750, Caroline Herschel, together with her brother William, recorded 2,500 new nebulae and star clusters. This was the basis for the New General Catalogue, by which celestial bodies are named to this day. She alone discovered 14 new nebulae, eight comets and 561 new stars. This prompted King George III to employ her. In what respect was this a first, possibly, in the world of science?

Answer :

First woman to be paid to do scientific work

1. At age 12, Mary Anning discovered the very first complete fossil of a dinosaur. She then collected a lot of shells and fossils around the English Channel and contributed to big changes in the way geologists thought about the history of the earth. We have heard of a rather twisted reference to her early days of collecting and marketing on the beach. What is the reference that is usually taught to school children to improve their pronunciation?

Answer :

She sells sea shells on the seashore

1. Dorothy Hodgkin in 1964 became the first, and so far only, British woman to win a Nobel Prize, for her work in determining the atomic structure of cobalamin, an essential compound that is involved in metabolism in the human body. What is the common name for cobalamin, which is the centre of debate nowadays as it has been proved that vegans do not get this in their diet?

Answer :

Vitamin B12

1. Indira Hinduja delivered the very first test-tube baby in India in 1986. In 1988, she was the first in India to use a technique called Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer where eggs are removed from the ovaries and placed in the Fallopian tubes. By what fitting acronym is this technique known which Dr. Hinduja popularised in India?

Answer :

GIFT

1. Eunice Foote’s article in The American Journal of Science and Arts in September 1856 perfectly predicted a revolution in climate science by experimentally demonstrating the effects of the sun on certain gases and theorising how those gases would interact with earth’s atmosphere for the first time. Three years later, Irish physicist John Tyndall published similar results, but his work was widely accepted and is globally accepted as the foundation of climate science. What did Foote predict that was ignored at the time due to gender bias?

Answer :

Global warming

1. Rachel Carson was a marine biologist and bestselling author, most celebrated for her 1962 novel Silent Spring. The book inspired a grassroots environmental movement that eventually became the US Environmental Protection Agency. It also led to a ban on a dangerous pesticide, traces of which have been found even at the bottom of the Mariana Trench. Which now-feared pesticide was completely blanked thanks to Carson’s book?

Answer :

DDT

1. Fabiola Gianotti is an Italian particle physicist who became interested in scientific research after reading a biography of Marie Curie. In 2012, she announced to the world that the elusive Higgs Boson had been discovered by her team. In 2016, she became the first woman to become Director-General of a research organisation that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. What is the name of the organisation that Gianotti heads, which physically spans two countries?

Answer :

CERN

The Sunday Quiz | Easy like Sunday morning: Women in science

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Printable version | Apr 8, 2020 8:33:54 AM | https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/the-sunday-quiz-easy-like-sunday-morning/article31007467.ece

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