Science
Father of virology Dmitri Ivanovsky was the first to discover viruses in 1892.

Sunday Quiz: Easy like Sunday morning

‘COVID-19, also known as Mother Nature’s Revenge!’

Sunday Quiz: Easy like Sunday morning

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1. This word in the English Language comes from late Middle English and used to denote to the venom of a snake. In Latin it literally means ‘slimy, liquid poison’. Earlier it was believed that it was a substance produced in the body as the result of disease and could infect others. What word is this that is currently rattling the entire world?

Answer :

Virus

1. Viruses are not alive, they do not have cells and they cannot turn food into energy and are not classified under either Kingdom Animalia or Planta. This is because they cannot do something that all other living organisms can. They need something without which they are just inert packets of chemicals. What is required for a virus to be active, which is why humans are in the current case?

Answer :

Hosts. They need a host to be active.

1. Dmitri Ivanovsky was a Russian botanist who first discovered viruses in 1892 and is considered the father of virology. He was in Ukraine to investigate a certain disease affecting a very important crop which was causing massive losses. He knew it was a new type of disease agent because it could permeate porcelain Chamberland filters, something which bacteria could never do. Which crop was he studying which, till today (though banned in many places), is one of the most important crops that do not give an edible product?

Answer :

Tobacco

1. Viruses are not exactly dead, either. They have genes, they reproduce, and they evolve through natural selection. COVID-19, which is the coronavirus first described in 2019 has a single strand of genetic material which is 27-34 kilobases long, which makes it the largest of its kind and also susceptible to more mutations. What genetic material is found in this virus which is found as a single strand and not as a double helix?

Answer :

RNA – Ribonucleic acid

1. Peplomers are glycoprotein spikes which are present on the outer envelope of a virus. Their function is to bind only to certain receptors on a host cell and they are responsible for determining host specificity and viral infectivity. The peplomers on COVID-19 have a characteristic appearance under electron microscopy. What did this appearance lead to which we all are now familiar with?

Answer :

A crown-like appearance leading to the name ‘Coronavirus’ (Latin for crown)

1. The Mamavirus is a large virus which was first reported in 2008. The reason they were not discovered till recently was because they are so huge they were mistaken for bacteria. This giant virus is so big it has its own satellite virus called Sputnik. This organism is a breeding ground for such viruses because it swallows both viruses and bacteria and they could swap genes. What organism is this which we all know for its characteristic un-shape?

Answer :

Amoeba

1. The human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is known to cause a certain type of cancer and they are able to transform human lymphocytes so that they can sustain themselves in-vitro. This virus has co-evolved with humans for thousands of years and is used to study prehistoric migration patterns. They also affect a certain type of animal known as Cercopithecidae, which are very closely related to us. This is one of the facts that support the theory of evolution. What other animals can the HTLV affect?

Answer :

Primates (Old World Monkeys)

1. Half of all human DNA originally came from viruses which had infected and embedded themselves in our ancestors’ egg and sperm cells. There is a theory that a large DNA-based virus took up residence inside a bacterial cell more than a billion years ago to create the first cell nucleus which eventually led to evolution and us. In 2005, French researchers unsuccessfully tried to revive one of those embedded viruses. What was the name of this controversial project which was named after a mythical bird associated with rebirth?

Answer :

Phoenix

1. This is one of the most common viruses and causes an infectious disease which can spread by droplets in the air caused by coughing or sneezing. Usually lasting for 2-3 weeks this disease affects about five million people every year. Around the equator the outbreak of the disease could happen at any time whereas in the North and South it happens mainly in winter. Known as the ‘Flu’ what virus is responsible for this disease?

Answer :

Influenza

1. The coronoavirus is made of three basic units, the genetic material, a protein capsid and a lipidic envelope to protect them outside of the host. The weakest part of this assembly is the lipid bilayer membrane which has covalent bonds holding it together. A common daily use object contains fat-like substances known as amphiphiles which compete with this membrane and lead to breakdown of the virus. What object is this which leads to a very simple but effective method to stop the spread of the virus?

Answer :

Soap

Sunday Quiz: Easy like Sunday morning

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Printable version | May 26, 2020 4:24:28 PM | https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/sunday-quiz-march-27/article31183058.ece

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