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Life in every drop: Jonas Salk’s oral vaccine is a boon to children.

Sunday Quiz: All about vaccines

'Vaccines save lives; fear endangers them. It's a simple message parents need to keep hearing’

Sunday Quiz: All about vaccines

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1. Born on May 17, 1749, this English physician was an avid zoologist who discovered that the baby cuckoo pushes the other eggs out of the nest. He is most well known for inoculating an eight-year-old boy with pus from cowpox blisters on a milkmaid and proving his hypothesis. The success of this discovery led to the development of a biological preparation which provides immunity to an infectious disease. Who was this physician and what is the preparation that he pioneered?

Answer :

Edward Jenner, the first vaccine (For smallpox)

1. Emil von Behring was a German physiologist who won the first Nobel Prize in Medicine (1901). He was known as a ‘saviour of children’ because he discovered antitoxins for two diseases which before his time had killed thousands of children. The first one was caused by Corynebacterium and the second by Clostridium bacteria. What are these two diseases which children now are vaccinated against along with Pertussis (whooping cough)?

Answer :

Diphtheria and Tetanus

1. Maurice Hilleman’s daughter Jeryl caught a viral disease in 1963 that caused her salivary glands to swell. He cultured a sample from her, worked and developed a vaccine and injected it into his younger daughter. The resulting vaccine is still used as part of the MMR vaccine and has saved more than a hundred million lives so far. He went on to develop vaccines for measles, Hep A, Hep B, Chickenpox, Meningitis and pneumonia (amongst others) rightfully earning the claim ‘most successful vaccinologist’. What disease did his daughter get that he treated?

Answer :

Mumps

1. This Scottish gentleman won his Nobel in 1945 and is best known for discovering the lysozyme enzyme and the world’s first broadly effective antibiotic substance, which he serendipitously found on a mould. Who is this microbiologist who was voted one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century by Time magazine?

Answer :

Sir Alexander Fleming

1. Robert Koch was a German physician known for his extensive work in improving laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology. He received his Nobel Prize in 1905 for discovering the causative agent for a particular disease caused by a Mycobacterium species which generally affects the lungs. This disease was historically called ‘consumption’ due to the weight loss it caused. Thanks to Koch’s work a vaccine could be eventually developed which brought down the huge death toll from this ancient disease. Which disease is this?

Answer :

Tuberculosis (TB)

1. Jonas Salk successfully developed a vaccine which became the safest and most effective medicine needed in a health system when it was introduced. It was so effective and safe that an oral vaccine was developed which could be given as drops to children. He showed its success with a trial on 1.8 million U.S. schoolchildren after which countries all around the world immediately sprung to action. Which disease caused by a virus is this that once was feared as ‘America’s greatest fear after the Atom bomb’?

Answer :

Polio

1. John Snow was an English Physician who was a leader in the development of anaesthesia and medical hygiene and the founder of modern epidemiology. His work led to fundamental changes in the water and waste systems of London, which led to changes in all major cities all around the world, improving general public health till today. His work started because of his work on an outbreak of an infectious disease caused by the Vibrio bacterium in London. What disease is this, the first pandemic of which happened in India in 1817?

Answer :

Cholera

1. Morbillivirus is an RNA virus which causes a highly contagious airborne infectious disease that affects only humans. Its main symptoms are small white spots known as Koplik’s spots. It is prevented by a combination vaccine which also protects from two other diseases, Mumps and Rubella. What disease is this that affects 20 million people per year but has been brought under control with the vaccine?

Answer :

Measles

1. Varicella which is caused by the varicella-zoster virus is a highly contagious airborne disease that results in a characteristic itchy skin rash. Since 1995 the introduction of a vaccine has decreased the number of cases dramatically. What disease is this that gets its more common name because the rash seems to resemble what happens if a certain farm animal would peck the skin?

Answer :

Chickenpox

1. Kitasato Shibasaburō was a Japanese physician who was nominated along with Emil von Behring for the Nobel Prize but unfortunately didn’t win. He discovered a bacterium which he believed caused a certain devastating disease. A few days later the bacterium was identified by a Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin, after whom the bacteria is named Yersinia pestis. Once this was discovered it became easier to put an end to this disease that had killed an estimated 50 million people in the 14th century alone. What diseases is this, with the name nowadays used to refer to any major infectious disease wrongly?

Answer :

Plague

Sunday Quiz: All about vaccines

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Printable version | May 29, 2020 12:50:57 AM | https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/may-17-sunday-quiz-easy-like-sunday-morning/article31605865.ece

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