Beyond the ‘us-them’ binary

Though some media outlets gave it needless coverage, anyone could have expected that the Islamic State (IS) would call for “revenge” following the Christchurch, New Zealand mosque shootings on March 15, in which 50 people lost their lives. At its peak in 2015, the IS had 30,000 fighters and the estimated support of (at the most) half a million Muslims — out of a total world population of an estimated 1.8 billion Muslims in 2015. It also has the reputation of being the organisation that has killed the maximum number of Muslims in recent years, a fact obscured by its gory executions of ‘non-Muslims’.

For the IS to urge ‘revenge’ on the behalf of all Muslims was exactly the same as the act of terrorism perpetrated by the Australia-born, white supremacist, alt-right terrorist on men, women and children who had gone to two Christchurch mosques for peaceful Friday congregational prayers on March 15. As his ‘manifesto’ indicates, this young white alt-right male terrorist was also seeking “revenge” for various acts of real or imagined violence by ‘Muslims’. In short, the perpetrator of the Christchurch massacres and the IS are caught in a distorting binary worldview of ‘us versus them’, and inevitably this is the world they will create if the rest of us do not call their bluff.

The ‘T’ word

And this time, for a change, a world leader called their bluff right at the start. The Prime Minister of New Zealand, Jacinda Ardern, not only referred to the attacks as “one of New Zealand’s darkest days” but, more courageously, did not hesitate to call their perpetrator a “terrorist”. By using the ‘T’ word — which is easily applied to terrorising violence by Muslim criminals but tardily applied to similar violence by white supremacist or (in India) Hindutva criminals — Ms. Ardern sent a powerful message. In this, she was supported by her counterpart in Australia, Scott Morrison, who also did not hesitate to describe the perpetrator as a terrorist.

The hesitation in the media to describe white extremism or Hindutva violence as terror is a reflection, however diffuse, of exactly that binary division of the world into ‘us versus them’ that I have highlighted. It has its counterpart in the Muslim world too, and I will come to that a bit later. Evidently, Ms. Ardern’s honest description of what happened in Christchurch sent a message not only to the world media but also to Muslims: what she effectively said was that Muslims are not ‘them’ in New Zealand. She highlighted this in many ways, by thoughtful acts of condolence as well as a clear statement in which she embraced the victims (mostly immigrants and refugees) as “one of us”.

The good effect of such admirable statesmanship was evident in the responsible way in which the New Zealand media largely covered the tragedy. Those of us in India who are used to our hyperventilating evening shows should have marked this difference. Not that the ‘us-them’ binary disappeared. The tabloid press — not least in England, a country whose inability to face up to its own subterranean prejudices has landed it in the on-going mess of Brexit — still continued, much of the time, to think along those binaries. This was admirably exposed by The Feed, which, among other things, compared the initial front page Christchurch heading of The Daily Mirror (‘Angelic boy who grew into an evil far-right killer’) to how the same paper had covered the Orlando nightclub shooting of 2016 (‘ISIS Maniac Kills 50 in Gay Club’).

The Feed went on to note, with references, that there is a tendency in sections of the Western media to focus on the ‘humanity’ of the Christchurch murderer, sometimes even before talking of his victims. This contrasts to the normal (correct to my mind) option of focussing on the humanity of the victims when the murderer is a Muslim extremist.

Sustaining a worldview

However, this ‘us-them’ attitude is not limited to the ‘West’. That large sections of mainstream Muslims also share it was illustrated by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who rashly described the Christchurch massacres in terms of a broader attack on Turkey and Muslims. If Ms. Ardern — unlike most other Muslim or non-Muslim leaders in similar situations in the past — showed vision and humanity, Mr. Erdoğan displayed, at best, political expediency. Just as it is easy to whip up anti-Muslim sentiments among many peoples in the West and in places like India, it is easy to whip up the exaggerated bogey of Islamophobia among Muslims all over the world.

Yes, extremist ideologies exist among Muslims and other peoples: hence, Islamophobia also exists. But these are sweeping explanations, which finally ‘explain’ by obscuring much on the basis of a prior investment in the ‘us-them’ ideology. While noting the difference in media coverage, The Feed rightly explained it not in terms of a hatred for Muslims but a refusal to see that ‘we’ are not that different from ‘them’. Hence, it is easy to see ‘them’ as maniacs and ‘us’ as fallen angels; it is easy to call ‘them’ terrorists, and ‘us’, well, anything but terrorists. By doing so, we refuse to accept our complicity in sustaining a simplistic and distorted binary worldview that permits such acts of terror — against Muslims, Christians, Hindus, atheists, gay men, women, whatever may be the ‘nature’ of ‘them’ in our book of otherness.

Once we have demeaned ‘them’ to a subhuman level, it is easy to kill ‘them’ as if they were not human. Most of us won’t go that far, but most of us do help sustain the ‘us-them’ binary that enables a ‘maniac’ (or ‘fallen angel’) to go that far. This, as Ms. Ardern also noted, is further magnified by the media tendency to give easy publicity to such confused murderers. Don’t name the perpetrator of the Christchurch massacres, she advised. And I, for one, have not.

Tabish Khair is an Indian novelist and academic who teaches in Denmark

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Printable version | Feb 19, 2021 8:28:43 AM |

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