Six people have died and 3,50,000 have been treated for a fever that has spread “explosively” across North Korea, state media said on May 13, a day after acknowledging a COVID-19 outbreak for the first time in the pandemic.
North Korea likely doesn’t have sufficient COVID-19 tests and other medical equipment and said it didn’t know the cause of the mass fevers. But a big COVID-19 outbreak could be devastating in a country with a broken healthcare system and an unvaccinated, malnourished population.
The North’s official Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) said of the 3,50,000 people who developed fevers since late April, 1,62,200 have recovered. It said 18,000 people were newly found with fever symptoms on Thursday alone, and 1,87,800 people are being isolated for treatment.
One of the six people who died was confirmed infected with the omicron variant, KCNA said, but it wasn’t immediately clear how many of the total illnesses were COVID-19. North Korea imposed a nationwide lockdown on Thursday after acknowledging its first COVID-19 cases. Those reports said tests from an unspecified number of people came back positive for the omicron variant.
It’s unusual for isolated North Korea to admit to the outbreak of any infectious disease, let alone COVID-19, as the country is intensely proud and sensitive to outside perception about its self-described “socialist utopia.”
While North Korean leader Kim Jong Un had occasionally been candid about his worsening economy and other problems in recent years, he had repeatedly expressed confidence about North Korea’s pandemic response and wasn’t seen wearing a mask in public until a ruling party meeting on Thursday where the North announced the COVID-19 infections.
It’s possible that the spread of the virus was accelerated by a massive military parade in Pyongyang on April 25, where Kim Jong Un took centre stage and showcased the most powerful missiles of his military nuclear programme in front of tens of thousands.
Cheong Seong-Chang, an analyst at South Korea’s Sejong Institute, said the pace of the fever's spread suggests the crisis could last months and possibly into 2023, causing major disruption in the poorly equipped country. Some experts say the North’s initial announcement communicates a willingness to receive outside aid.
The North last year shunned millions of shots offered by the U. N.-backed COVAX distribution programme, including doses of AstraZeneca and China’s Sinovac vaccines, possibly because of questions about their effectiveness and unwillingness to accept monitoring requirements. The country lacks the extreme-cold storage systems that are required for mRNA vaccines such as Pfizer and Moderna.
The office of South Korea's new conservative President Yoon Suk Yeol, who began his single five-year term on Tuesday, said his government is willing to provide vaccines and other medical supplies to North Korea and hopes to hold discussions with the North over specific plans.
Boo Seung-chan, a spokesperson in South Korea's Unification Ministry, which handles inter-Korean affairs, said Seoul doesn’t immediately have an estimate on the number of vaccine doses it could offer to North Korea if Pyongyang requests help.
Inter-Korean relations have deteriorated over the past three years amid a stalemate in larger nuclear negotiations between Washington and Pyongyang, which derailed over disagreements about exchanging the release of crippling U.S.-led sanctions against the North and the North's disarmament steps.
Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian said on May 12 that Beijing was offering North Korea help in dealing with the outbreak.
“As its comrade, neighbour and friend, China stands ready to provide full support and assistance to the DPRK in the fight against the epidemic,” Zhao told reporters at a daily briefing, using the initials for North Korea’s official name, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
KCNA said Kim was briefed about the fever outbreak when he visited the emergency epidemic prevention headquarters on Thursday and criticised officials for failing to prevent “a vulnerable point in the epidemic prevention system.”
He said the spread of the fever has been centred around the capital, Pyongyang, and underscored the importance of isolating all work and residential units from one another while providing residents with every convenience during the lockdown.
“It is the most important challenge and supreme tasks facing our party to reverse the immediate public health crisis situation at an early date, restore the stability of epidemic prevention and protect the health and wellbeing of our people,” KCNA quoted Kim as saying.
North Korea's claim of a perfect record in keeping out the virus for two and a half years was widely doubted. But it was believed to have avoided a huge outbreak until now, in part because it instituted strict virus controls almost from the start of the pandemic.
The strict border closures and other measures further battered an economy already damaged by decades of mismanagement and crippling U.S.-led sanctions over North Korea's nuclear weapons and missile programmes, pushing Kim to perhaps the toughest moment of his rule.
Hours after confirming the COVID-19 outbreak on Thursday, North Korea launched three short-range ballistic missiles toward the sea in what possibly was meant to be a display of its strength. It was the North’s 16th round of missile launches this year.
Citing North Korea's shunning of the COVAX vaccines, White House press secretary Jen Psaki said the United States supported international aid efforts but doesn’t plan to share its vaccine supplies with the North.
“We do continue to support international efforts aimed at the provision of critical humanitarian aid to the most vulnerable North Koreans, and this is, of course, a broader part of the DPRK continuing to exploit its own citizens by not accepting this type of aid,” Ms. Psaki said on Thursday, in Washington.
“It’s not just vaccines. It’s also a range of humanitarian assistance that could very much help the people and the country and instead they divert resources to build their unlawful nuclear and ballistic missiles programmes.”