Data | 1994 vs 2012: Bihar, M.P. and Odisha had the highest share below poverty line in both years

While more than 40% of people in Bihar, Odisha, and M.P. were under the poverty line in 1993-1994, they remained the poorest States even in 2011-2012

August 27, 2022 07:36 pm | Updated 07:39 pm IST

Towards development: Women on the stairways carrying water to their homes

Towards development: Women on the stairways carrying water to their homes

A comparison of development indicators across States shows that they all have progressed over time, though the degree of improvement varies. In general, the eastern States performed poorly. In terms of per capita net State Domestic Product (constant prices) or SDP, all States were below the ₹20,000 mark in 1993-1994. By 2019-2020, all the southern and some western and northern States (except Uttar Pradesh) had crossed the ₹1 lakh mark. With more than 40% under the poverty line, Bihar, Odisha, and M.P. had a high poverty rate in 1993-1994. These States remained among the poorest even in 2011-2012. The share of rural women in the labour force (LFPR) declined across all States between FY94 and 2011-2012. Kerala and Goa were the top States across both periods in the Human Development Index (HDI). Regions: North (light blue), South (lavender), East (lilac), Northeast (green), West (yellow), Central India (grey) and Union Territory (orange)

SDP (in ₹): 1993-1994 vs 2019-2020

The graph shows per capita SDP. In 1993-94, all States were below the ₹20,000 mark. But by 2019-20, all the southern States, western States (except Rajasthan) and northern States (except Uttar Pradesh) had crossed the ₹1 lakh mark. Eastern and central States stayed behind the mark

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Poverty line: 1993-1994 vs 2011-2012 

The graph shows the poverty rate. In the mid-1990s, Bihar had the highest poverty rate (55%). By 2011-12, Chhattisgarh (39.9%) had replaced Bihar as the worst performing State. While Punjab (11.8%) had the lowest share in 1993-94, by 2011-12 Goa had the lowest share (5.1%) 

Working rural women: 1993-1994 vs 2011-2012

The graph shows the LFPR per 1,000 rural women. The share of women in the labour force declined across all the States between 1993-94 and 2011-12. In 2011-12, more than half the women were part of the rural workforce only in Himachal Pradesh

State-wise HDI: 1990 vs 2019

The graph depicts HDI measured on a scale of 0 (worst) to 1 (best). While only Kerala and Goa had crossed 0.55 in 1990, all the States/UTs had crossed this mark by 2019. Only Bihar and Uttar Pradesh had an HDI of less than 0.6 in 2019. Kerala and Goa remained at the top

Source: RBI Handbook of Statistics on Indian States, Global Data Lab

Also read: Poverty in India is on the rise again

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