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NYT NEWS SERVICE
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HEALTH When it comes to nutrition, you can't beat plant-based foods

LIGHT ON CALORIES Fruits and vegetables
LIGHT ON CALORIES Fruits and vegetables

T hose in the know consider fruits and vegetables among the healthiest foods around. Health experts now encourage people to fill half their plates with fruits and vegetables. But, really, what's the big deal? Why is it so important to eat more veggies?

Nutritionists can rattle off a long list of reasons when asked that question. Vegetables and fruits are dense in nutrients but light on calories. They contain rich amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fibre. Eating more veggies and fruits has been linked to decreased risk for such health problems as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and cancer.

Despite this, many people seem to have a hard time eating vegetables, something that's developed the reputation of being a chore rather than a pleasure. More than nine of 10 Americans consume fewer fruits and vegetables than the daily amount recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's dietary guidelines, which ranges from 2 cups to 61/2 cups, according to the ‘Fruits and Veggies — More Matters' health initiative, a programme aimed at increasing consumption of plant-based foods.

“I would say many of my current clients get maybe a cup of vegetables and maybe a fruit throughout the day, if I'm being generous,” says Jessica Crandall, a registered dietician and certified diabetes educator.

Getting a serving of vegetables or fruit is not difficult because a single serving is not a large amount, says Angela Ginn, a nutrition education coordinator.

“A whole cup raw or a half-cup cooked is considered a serving for vegetables,” Ginn says.

But there's a lot of nutritional power packed into that cup or half-cup. Though the precise benefit varies by type of fruit or vegetable, it could include a significant amount of:

Calcium, which promotes healthy bones and teeth, and is needed for proper functioning of muscles and nerves.

Folate, which reduces a woman's chances of having a child with a birth defect.

Iron, which is necessary for healthy blood and cell function.

Magnesium, which prevents muscle cramping and high blood pressure and is needed for healthy bones and proper enzymatic function.

Potassium, which helps maintain healthy blood pressure.

Vitamin A, which keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps protect the body against infection.

Vitamin C, which aids in healing cuts or wounds and helps keep teeth and gums healthy.

Even the micronutrients that give fruits and vegetables their colour are important sources of antioxidants, which have been shown to help prevent an array of diseases.

“Your phytonutrients that have all those vibrant colours, those are things that fight against chronic diseases,” Ginn says. “You find them in your fruits and vegetables more in abundance than you will in whole grains or in meat or dairy products.”

According to Crandall:

*Blue and purple fruits and vegetables contain anthocyanins, which have been shown to help fight some cancers and are helpful in anti-aging and memory function. They are found in blueberries, blackberries, plums, grapes, figs and raisins.

*Green fruits and vegetables contain luteins, which lower cancer risk and help promote better vision and strong bones and teeth. They are found in avocados, kiwi fruit, pears and apples.

*Red fruits and vegetables contain anthocyanins and lycopene, which can help keep the heart healthy, maintain better memory function and lower the risk for some cancers.

*Fruits and vegetables also contain a large amount of fibre. Fibre has a number of health benefits and also helps make people feel more full, reducing their consumption of other higher-calorie foods.

“Most people think fibre is just good for digestion,” she says, “but it's also helpful for lowering cholesterol, keeping your blood sugars stable and helping you feel full throughout your day.”

But even those who are already sold on eating more fruits and veggies sometimes find it tricky to work sufficient amounts into their day-to-day eating, say both Crandall and Ginn. They suggest getting creative.

For instance, work veggies into recipes that don't normally contain them. “It's just the little things you can do, even if you add grated carrot to your favourite muffin or grated zucchini to your pancakes,” Ginn says. “You can sneak them into your food in ways where you don't even taste them, but you receive the nutritional benefit.”

They also suggest cutting up fruits and veggies so they're bite-sized and available for snacking.

As Crandall says, “Make a vegetable tray so they are easier to use, so you don't have a cucumber rotting in the back of the fridge.”

And don't worry about whether you're eating fresh, frozen or canned vegetables. They're all good for you.

NYT NEWS SERVICE

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