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Updated: April 12, 2012 19:20 IST

Rice and reason

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According to a recent study. the more polished white rice poeple eat, greater is the risk of contracting Type 2 diabetes. File Photo: Nagar Gopal
The Hindu
According to a recent study. the more polished white rice poeple eat, greater is the risk of contracting Type 2 diabetes. File Photo: Nagar Gopal

There’s no denying that South India loves its rice. But latest studies warn us to use caution while piling our plates with the refined version of this staple grain

Have you ever wondered why over 40 per cent of the people in India are diabetic? Some doctors say that this is because the Indian body is prone to diabetes, just like some cars may guzzle more fuel or give you less mileage, because that’s simply how they’re built. Sedentary living and bad eating habits have only made the problem worse. However, a recent and disturbing study conducted by Harvard University has established that consuming just one cup of white rice (polished rice) everyday can put you at risk to diabetes, regardless of your nationality or whether you have a family history of the disease. Since rice is our staple food, the implications of the study can have a great long-term impact on the way India eats.

Polished Rice, Hello Diabetes

Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health reviewed four previous studies conducted in China, Japan, US and Australia on the impact of white rice in the onset of Type 2 diabetes. The researchers also analyzed whether the Asian population were more at risk to diabetes and whether there was a higher risk of contracting the disease if you ate greater amounts of rice. All the participants had been diabetes free when the studies began. The results of the study proved that the more polished white rice a person eats, regardless of their nationality, they are at great risk of contracting Type 2 diabetes. The authors of the study estimate that the odds increase by 10 per cent with each additional serving of white rice. And interestingly enough, women seemed more at risk than men. The full study "White Rice Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review" (PDF), was published in the British Medical Journal.

If you are a typical South Indian in your choice of foods, you would have grown up with that bed of rice on your plate during most meals. The creative rice preparations in this part of the world can really tempt you. What does the Harvard study mean to us? Should avoid rice altogether or switch to the jaw-breaking unpolished rice? Extensive research on this subject has been conducted by Dr Vishwanathan Mohan, head of the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Dr Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, a WHO Collaborating Centre in Gopalapuram, Chennai. His findings were published recently in the British Journal of Nutrition. “I don’t fully agree with the observation that just taking one cup of white rice per day can cause diabetes,” says Dr Mohan. “One food item in isolation cannot cause a disease. But controlling the amount of rice we consume is very important because our research shows a strong epidemiological link between the amount of rice consumed and the risk of diabetes. When the rice consumption doubled from about 200 gms to 400 gms per day, the risk of diabetes increased fourfold. It was 400 per cent higher even after correcting issues (faced by participants of the study) such as obesity, physical activity, family history of diabetes etc. So there seems to be some kind of link.”

What we can do

We know that the foods we eat are converted to glucose by our bodies. White polished rice (in the parboiled or non-parboiled form) raises blood sugar levels quickly. These are called high GI (Glycemic Index) foods. In comparison, brown rice has a lower GI. When the body processes brown rice, it releases glucose in the blood stream more slowly. The foods that create high GI levels in your body are known to put you at risk to diabetes in the long run.

“However, rice isn’t the only culprit,” says Deepshikha Agarwal, dietician and sports nutritionist. “Most people have sedentary lifestyles today. When this is coupled with too much rice consumption, it exposes them to the risk of diabetes. Stay more active and instead of completely boycotting rice, substitute white polished rice with brown rice. Remember, white rice primarily consists of starch which can be easily converted into fat and stored in the body. With little nutritional value, it is best avoided.”

“We have conducted studies where we have substituted healthier whole grain rice such as brown rice for white rice and have shown that the blood glucose responses are much lower after the meal,” says Dr Mohan. “The serum insulin levels are also reduced by substitution of brown rice.”

How polished your rice is can also be affecting the health of your family. If your rice is an attractive, dazzling white, it will not providing you with the nutrients your body needs. “Ideally, we should consume the whole grain in rice with the bran intact as it contains plenty of nutrients. Once you remove the bran completely, this makes the rice whiter and whiter. It becomes pure starch and all the other key nutrients like vitamins, minerals, functional nutrients (phytonutrients), protein and fibre content of the rice are lost. Traditionally in the past, rice used to be only 2 per cent polished, but today, we have varieties that are polished as much as 12 per cent,” says Dr Mohan.

The Plate Principle

If you love rice, you’ll be happy to learn that experts don’t recommend cutting it out of our diets permanently. “A balanced diet with the right kind of rice is important,” says Agarwal. “Follow the plate principle,” advises Dr Mohan. “Take quarter plate of rice and fill up the remaining part with vegetables, lentils and other nutritive foods for a healthy diet. Remember, what you consume with your rice is equally important, so ensure that your plate is piled up with plenty of vegetables, lentils and pulses such as bengal gram, green gram, black gram. All this will that will add protein and fibre to your meal, so its not all starch.”

We have a tradition dating back to thousands of years,when Harvard
did not exist--so also we were accustomed to hand-pounded rice,which
being tasty, did not subscribe to malnutrition. But, the glamour of
everything white,created fools of us, thereby throwing to wind our valued habits--we never had the present-day sickness then. Our
lifestyle has changed to make things worse for our health.making it miserable--this in a nutshell , is the sourc of the present-day ills.

from:  Vaidyanathan
Posted on: Apr 24, 2012 at 19:41 IST

The article reinforces the belief that we need to have a balanced meal with less portions of carbs and supplement with other side dishes like curries and gravies of lentils. You can see a lot of people associate buying basmati rice (we find variations in the levels of polish within this group) as a status symbol mainly Indians who reside out of India. that's where the basmati rice market is...apart from the status loving and showcasing individuals in infamously known, diabetes is the disease of affluent populace...In olden days though they consumed rice, they did a lot of calorie burning work that ensured they burn their fats opposed to the current days' sedentary motto is eat what you like, of course vegetarian food, even then in moderation and do exercise...and live a long life...:)

from:  Maha
Posted on: Apr 18, 2012 at 15:19 IST

This article is more like "Stop Smoking" although there are various
forms of tobacco. This applies to Rice. We use rice (polished) various
forms.. dosa, idlies, uppma, koozu etc... so i completely agree with
harvard study. We should avoid Rice and rice based foods...

The only way we can cure the disease is when Rice becomes a side dish
from the main dish.... But the question becomes what will be the main
dish? I will go with protein as the main dish. Dhal,Beans,Grams etc...

Japs eat rice... But they dont become diabetic, primarily due to Sea-
Vegetables and Fish (high anti inflammatory), - inflammation which is
the main cause of diabetic in the first place.

from:  Ragu
Posted on: Apr 15, 2012 at 17:22 IST

It has become very important to acquire awrarness about balanced nutrition . Right amount
of proteins carbohydrates fats vitamins and minerals are required in each meal. At least
one hour of moderate physical activity should be part of every day .diabetes is genetic and
life style disease. Simple things can help.

from:  Dr upjinder
Posted on: Apr 15, 2012 at 16:23 IST

It looks funny. Yes south Indians are rice lovers. Your study also may be correct. But your way of telling is horrible. Instead of threatening rice eaters you should have told our changing new habits are leading to become diabetic due to -----.

from:  Babu.
Posted on: Apr 15, 2012 at 15:32 IST

Polished rice or unpolished rice, before cooking it is washed thoroughly. The unpolished rice will lose bran and other nutirents in the process. So, the question i, can rice be cooked without washing ? Secondly, after cooking the water in which it is cooked is drained and thrown away,thereby the unpolished rice also loses it's nutrient value. Here, the Kerala practice of consuming "kanji"- rice alongwith thewater it is cooked in- is noteworthy. Rice provided instant energy, but along with pulses, vegetables, etc. are mandatorily required to be consumed for a proper meal.

from:  E Vishwa Nathan
Posted on: Apr 15, 2012 at 12:05 IST

It is exaggerated that the prevalence of diabetics in India is over 40%. Polished rice is not so good, and the reasons explained for that are cannot be denied, but starting a article with a wrong information is not acceptable, and affecting negetively the interest of reading the article.

from:  Kunhalan kutty
Posted on: Apr 15, 2012 at 11:24 IST

First of all, do 40% of Indians have diabetic problem or 40% of South
Indians? If 40% of all Indians have the problem why blame rice and
South Indian food habits. Let us not exaggerate any one factor and
start publishing that rice or any other food for that matter
contributes to any disease, let alone diabetics. Intake of "excessive
rice" may result in conditions that lead to diabetics. However in AP,
and Tamil Nadu usage of lentils (in various preparations like pappu,
sambar) along with vegetables mixed with rice or consumed as
accompaniments contribute balanced diet.

Irrespective of the dietary habits regular exercise in one form or the
other is a must. WE know several people staying healthy having rice
two times a day and we know people with not that good health despite
avoiding rice. Rice alone can never be the reason. Excessive
consumption of polished rice has to be avoided. Sedentary life style
is dangerous. Regular medical check up (at least once in a year) is

from:  J V Murty
Posted on: Apr 15, 2012 at 09:57 IST

Globally, rice is considered highest consumed cereal. Among the Asian
population that encompasses China, Cambodia, Japan, Korea, Vietnam,
all are essentially rice eaters. China is probably the largest
consumer of rice and outside world has little information on
incidence or raise of
diabetes in China due to iron curtain.
Incidence of Type 2 form of diabetes is traced to a variety of
genetic and non-genetic factors.
Specifically the article refers to population in India as one
homogeneous group which is not a fact. Rice eating population is
present in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Taminl Nadu in south,
Orissa and West Bengal on east. Outside those states, rice eating is
occasional and saprinng in states like Bihar, Gujarat, Goa,
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, etc. Incidence
of diabetes, particularly Type 2 is as common in those states.
Don't isolate rice eating as the causal factor leading to Type 2

from:  Kasi Gabbita
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 23:34 IST

Hit the nail on the head.
Also the rice has to be organic.
Unpolished rice and organic will be expensive. However for health purpose it is mandatory.
The food industry is depleting the nutrients and feeding us with chemicals.
40% of the food is useful and the rest 60% is urea and phosphate.
Not just brown but organic too should be the message.
A fast food chain produces burgers which are made from 60% chemicals right from the meat, potatoes, fries and oil. These burgers dont' rot for a long time. Its called quality or wax fruits on your table for decoration.
Food industry hand in glove with the drug industry.

from:  bhaskar
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 17:01 IST

This is totally false, Centuries together rice is the main staple food globally. Wheat manufacturer lobby create a marketing wave to influnce the market absorbing techique... Read "The china study" book written by cornwell university professors (father and son) researched for 40 yrs cause of all diseases, how market lobby influence senators and pass bills in US senate and dairy industry fools us.etc etc. Even the drug (medicine) mafia influnze doctors and how we are victimized.

from:  cvbhossain
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 12:58 IST

Actually our traditional life style is excellent, they fallow the nature
rule. Depending on seasons they change the diet, ur right our grand
parents take the unpolished rice with vegetables.One more important
thing u miss that they give the importance for playing&physical

from:  Rajesh
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 11:59 IST

The problem with white polished rice is its high glycemic index, which
causes quick rise of blood sugar. This when combined with other such
high glycemic index foods like potatoes etc., would result in diabetic
problems. The same problem exists with maida products such as puris,
sandwich breads,buns,naans etc., What is important is to reduce these
high glucemic index foods and consume more of high fiber foods.
Today's lifestyles like using vehicles, lifts, and sitting for hours
in AC rooms compounds the problem. I wonder why even able bodied men
use lifts even for going one floor above and coming down the stairs.
While bicycles are preferred in many countries, especially in
college/university campuses, we prefer motorised 2-wheelers. In many
cities, pavements have disappeared and even those left standing are
shabby and neglected, discouraging everyone to walk. Apart from our
lifestyles in the modern world with fast food joints etc', bad
governace is also a factor.

from:  sunit
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 11:13 IST

First of all, the title should say "White rice and reason". Rice and
reason sounds catchy, but nutrition articles should stress more on
facts even in titles, you'd think at the cost of alliteration. And,
you should probably have mentioned that refined wheat is just as bad,
or even worse. The trend these days, seems to be to move from rice to
chappathis, forgetting the fact that refined wheat is not great
either. And lastly, like a previous comment said, when did unpolished
rice become jaw breaking?:) There should be a clear demarcation
between nutrition articles and light-hearted banter.

from:  Krishna Kumar
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 09:07 IST

The comments are as interesting as the Article!As a diabetic since 16 years, I have been experimenting with rice quantities and varieties. I found that if you take a cup more the glucose level jumps despite your active day; effect will be less with chapatis. My observation is that the rice grown in Far east like Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia have more starch values, relative to their Indian counterpart.I am an ardent collector of info on the topic and realized that every country has its own parameters of control and are not interchangeable. Dr.Mohan has always been kept this fact in mind and been providing guidance. The contention is that every diabetic guidance has to be weighed for individual usage before applied.If you read all Web articles, one gets utterly confused and spoil one's health.

from:  Chandramohan
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 05:38 IST

Though rice contributes to diabetes, we have to look at genetic indisposition towards this disease. Most of the people in west do not eat rice and some are diabetics. Not sure when the process of extracting good components of rice started, as rice is a staple diet for the past 5,000 years or so.

from:  padma
Posted on: Apr 14, 2012 at 00:35 IST

Sometime ago there was an article on gluten free diet, which basically meant you have to avoid wheat for gluten which would lead to 'Celiac's disease'. Now, its the time for rice! There is a basic problem, I agree that the varieties (breeds) of crop (the genetic composition) being cultivated are different from the ones that were cultivated some 50 years ago. But, the big problem here is the life style of people!!! Believe me, its a big problem! Articles on these health and nutrition have been pouring in across continents, but not a single article gives a holistic view of healthy eating! Humble request to health watchers: Don't avoid any of the staple foods, may be consume less, eat a good breakfast, exercise daily, don't pop in tablets unless it is prescribed for some illness. Apart from rice and ragi, there are millet, ragi and few other dry crops that are any time healthy to consume. Avoid frequent pizzaing, french frying, and other fast food cultures! This will lead to healthy life.

from:  Sharmila Natarajan
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 23:28 IST

In a good part of rural south India, white rice has been marketed as a premium food almost pushing crops as Jowar and other millets to extinction. These millets were more drought resistant, in addition to being more healthy compared to rice. Part of this can be attributed to the food policy of the government in including rice into the PDS and excluding every other millet. Now, when these millets are termed healthy and marketed so, the price of the millets have increased to almost that of rice pushing it out of the reach of the relatively poor people. Similar things happening to Sugar and Jaggery. You have sugar which poses the same problem and Jaggery which is relatively better. However, the Government pushes for sugar mills and Jaggery, the healthy alternative, is costlier than sugar.

from:  Finn
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 18:01 IST

This is a well known fact. However, it is amusing to the rest of the
world when the previous Health Minister, Ramadoss, imposed a tax on
Alcohol, and cigarettes because it was a "sin". In India, Indians
face a higher risk to their health from sugar and rice. Will the sale
of rice and sugar now be regulated as well on health grounds. How can
you impose a tax on one segment of the business on health grounds and
not on another?

from:  sathyavrath
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 17:41 IST

The Article is a good warning to South Indians who consume lot of rice. Good amount of body exercise and consumption of vegetables with rice will reduce diabetes.

from:  balambigainathan.e
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 15:57 IST

I think people are never tired of asking the same question on taste even when it is proved that the white is not good for health,after all the toungue is the slave of habit.just 2 generations ago eveyone in the country were eating the unploshed rice and when the polished rice was introduced for the first time, they might have raised the same questions about the taste of the polished rice being not as good as the unpolished one.

from:  Veerabhadram
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 15:57 IST

I recall long time back, when there was shortage of rice, politicians from north used to recommend the southerners to try wheat instead which was plenty even at that time. It was considered as a cruel joke! But I feel today it is not a bad idea for people used to consume only rice, to try other grains to add varieties to their meal and improve their health. The cooking channels(on TV) and media can bring in new ideas to people. If people are serious about their health, they cannot be stubborn about what they eat.

from:  C.D. Anand
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 15:54 IST

There is no mention of refined white flour which is consumed globally and is a high GI food. White Sugar is another main ingredient with high GI value. No mention in the article about including millets.

from:  varun
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 15:51 IST

i feel the cause of diabetes is more due to lifestyle and eating habits
than eating rice. a person will surely get diabetes if he eats pizza
everyday. i feel these surveys are kinda exaggerated. one bowl of
uncooked rice is enough for two persons in a meal.

from:  vijaiya prathap
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 15:21 IST

Is there no diabetes in North India/

from:  Sajith
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 15:17 IST

Another example of we Indians straying away from traditional ingradients and style of cooking. From pure Ghee to coconut oil to unpolished rice - we are all falling pray to the false propaganda of multinationals and the products they sell. I am sure it's matter of time before we are told that the old style jagary and unbleached salt are better than sugar and salt we are sold on TV. Let's not forget that the good milk, curds and honey can also go long way in keeping us healthy.

from:  Shrinivas
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 14:38 IST

The modern rice mills particularly in TN polish the rice ( removing the bran completely) to give white colour unmindful of the harms it will cause to the consumers. The boiled rice is good for health but some communities ( particularly Brahmins ) prefer raw white rice for food so, the number of diabetic in this community must be higher than other communities. Balanced diet ( rice as well as wheat and other food grains) will help to get rid of this problem .

from:  Anthakudi Nagarajan
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 14:29 IST

Rice for people from Karnataka - has traditionally been a 'luxury' grain. What that means is that rice would be eaten ocassionally - on special festivals and important days. The staple in most parts used to be either Ragi (south Karnataka) or Jowar (north Karnataka). It was only in coastal Karnataka that rice used to be eaten more often as that region is not used to either Ragi or Jowar : and that too unpolished rice.
However with modernization - all that has changed. Rice is eaten far more now (on a daily basis) than it used to be. Riced based dishes like idly, dosa etc. (which also used to be 'luxury' dishes) are now the mainstay. This reasearch is important today - as there has been a rise of lifestyle based diseases. The change in diet has significantly added to it. I hope this research can be extended to tie up an loose ends it has. People should be more aware that this trend needs to be changed.

from:  Rajiv Ramanjani
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 13:23 IST

I dont think this study is incorrect but....if it were fully true all south indians should have diabetes, we have been consuming lots of white rice for decades. why does only a percentage of the population have diabetes?I would however cut it down big time, especially since it has little nutritional value. speaking of alternatives, wheat is one but there are disturbing studies of the effects of gluten. Perhaps more ragi.

from:  naveen
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 11:54 IST

keralities are safe . Majority takes only brown rice .

from:  Sulgith Moosan
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 11:25 IST

I find the phrase "jaw-breaking unpolished rice" totally
inappropriate and brimming with false eloquence. Journalistic
writing must be balanced and rational.

from:  Kurien Mathew
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 10:48 IST

It is high time that government takes action to save millions from risk
of possible diabetes by banning the polishing of rice, like they did
save millions from Iodine deficiency by compulsory sales of Iodized

from:  Dr. D. Sathyanarayana
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 10:40 IST

A good piece of Information to the people in Kerala, those who love to
eat rice daily once or twice. The balanced version of meal with enough
lentils and vegetables was a good point too.

from:  Neenu
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 10:03 IST

while agreeing about fully polished silky white rice,i would like to know,if someone shift to brown rice,can the dosage of medication be reduced.

from:  surampudi veerabhadra rao
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 09:45 IST

Very strangely there is NO explanation to the simple question "Why is rice polished?" anywhere in the web. Brief mention is made on the general preference for polished rice due to taste. Long back I recall being told that brown rice has short shelf life. Question remains, does keeping rice in unhusked solve this problem? Is it practical to dehusk as required, for consumption?

from:  AshokM
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 06:51 IST

the article is timely and really educative. In fact there is a mad like search for more polished rice. But it is claimed that the quality of cooked rice of brown one is not like the polished one in terms of taste and shape. can there be any solution for this.

from:  a.g.rajmohan
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 06:25 IST

Could not have been more timely. Re-print your print-editions with such as the lead on the front page. This piece appears in conjunction with an earlier piece you ran sometime back.

There is balance in this piece. It is absolutely correct that local tastes and farming play a huge part in diet. Rice has and will always be a staple in peninsular India. The proportion is perhaps what's changed, along with its processing. In that earlier piece, there were several references to kaikuttal arisi (hand-pounded rice), which retained several of the surface nutrients of the grain. The 'good-looks' craze resulted in grain 'polishing' becoming the norm.

Vegetables and other staples that round out a balanced diet have withered for reasons not related here; so rice consumption has increased. Sedentary lifestyle is so true: my father's generation (b. 1920s) bicycled to work even in the City; mothers trod more miles just within the house! Children grew up playing, not on TV. Water was all we drank!

from:  Kumar
Posted on: Apr 13, 2012 at 01:14 IST

The very sentence in this article is factually incorrect.
"Have you ever wondered why over 40 per cent of the people in India are diabetic?" Was it supposed to be 40 Million and not 40 percent? Or was it supposed to be 40 percent in a much more narrower group of people than the 'people of India'?

from:  Vijay
Posted on: Apr 12, 2012 at 23:20 IST

Nice article.
Adding some tips here would help the readers a bit
- Instead of eating rice cooked once,try microoven it 2 or 3 times before eating.This way starch will be stripped off to some extent.
- Quinoa is very high in protein and could be typically replaced for white rice.
- As most of the South Indians eat curd rice,preparing curd rice in oatmeal would be yummy and healthy.

I have been following this for sometime now and thought I could share with the readers.

from:  karthik
Posted on: Apr 12, 2012 at 22:53 IST

Alright then. That would mean all the Japanese people would have succumbed to diabetes by now and wiped off from the face of the earth, considering the fact that Japan's major dietary intake is also rice and fish.
What we see is Japan has not been affected as much as we would like to believe? So, what is missing in the study?
Well, dont tell me Japanese do not lead sedentary lifestyles and instead are very hard working people. Its not a scientific explanation.

from:  Jayakrishnan Rajendran
Posted on: Apr 12, 2012 at 21:53 IST

half of world is rice eater.your research regarding association of rice with diabetes-how dependable is this.Canyou tell where this brown rice is available in New Delhi-kuldip singh

from:  kuldipsingh
Posted on: Apr 12, 2012 at 21:27 IST

Why title the article Rice and Reason. I was wondering, what is the connection between rice and reason. Is it to puncture the pride of the rice-guzzling south Indian on his 'reasoning' superiority!
Then it has fully served its objective.

from:  rathnaswamy venkataraman
Posted on: Apr 12, 2012 at 21:02 IST

This article contains valuable and balanced information. The south Indians in the past ate substantial rice, but not machine-polished rice; they also were physically active; they ate according to seasons; followed a definitely high level of healthy living.
Therefore, today if we imitate their rice eating habits, discarding the other healthy habits, we cannot blame poor rice for it.
Eating polished rice is a modern habit, not the traditional habit.
Therefore, a mass programme, such as on the lines of polio-vaccine programme, is indicated.

from:  rathnaswamy venkataraman
Posted on: Apr 12, 2012 at 20:39 IST

Agreed that white polished rice is less healthy and is not as nutritive as brown rice, it is imperative to be informed that such polished white rice is NOT injurious to ones health in that it contains no toxins as implied by some nutitionists. Because white rice is pure starch, it provides only calories and its excessive consumption could lead to obesity and other problems. However, it should be stressed that it is quite SAFE to consume limited amounts of white rice, preferably "enriched" white rice as it is done here in the US by law ( all white rice and white flour marketed in the U.S. MUST be enriched with niacin, riboflavin thiamine and iron that are lost during polishing) complemented with nutrient rich vegetables and peas and beans (lentils). Traditional south Indian diet has included judicious mix of rice, vegetables and a variety of "paruppus"(lentils),thus providing all essential amino acids,minerals and vitamins. This combination has stood the test of time for centuries.

from:  Dr. Sundara Rajan
Posted on: Apr 12, 2012 at 20:07 IST
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