Breeding and health management are the two key points for dairying to be profitable. There are two ways to increase the breeding efficiency of buffalo and cows.

First is selection of genetically superior females, free from any reproductive and systemic diseases, and no physical abnormalities, having yearly calving, good growth of calves and lower age at first calving.

Timely observance of heat and mating of females at appropriate time and pregnancy diagnosis can help improve reproductive efficiency and thus genetic progress.

Due importance

Artificial insemination is the most successful method for breed development and should be given due importance because maintaining a number of breeding bulls is a costly issue and reduces the rate of genetic improvement.

If farmers maintain breeding bulls then care should be taken to see that the animal conforms to the breed type and should be a progeny from high yielding breed.

The bull should be free from disease and vaccinated and tested for any infections regularly. Record keeping is a must for all breeding activities and milk production of the females in the herd.

Breeding bulls should be allowed to walk regularly and not kept tied so that they may not become fat and have problems in natural mating or in donating semen.

Vaccination

Special drive for vaccination against various contagious diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease (F.M.D.), Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (H.S.), Black quarters disease (B.Q) etc. must be followed according to the schedule.

The animals should be served at the doorstep by local veterinarian and awareness created among the dairy livestock keepers. Free inputs should be made available for various diseases and for parasitic control.

This would certainly avoid the expenses incurred on routine treatment and production losses due to illness.

(Dr. Rajinder Singh is Senior Extension Specialist (animal sciences), Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Extension, Rohtak, email: raja.udaybhar@gmail.com, mobile: 09416495904 and Dr. K.S. Dangi is Director General, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying Haryana Chandigarh, email: dangikrishan@yahoo.co.in, mobile no is 09876644619.)