Opinion » Comment

Updated: March 20, 2012 00:35 IST

A budget at war with the Finance Minister

S. Gurumurthy
Comment (8)   ·   print   ·   T  T  
POORLY BRIEFED: A 2011 file photo
of Finance Minister Pranab
Mukherjee interacting with the
media. Photo: Rajeev Bhatt
POORLY BRIEFED: A 2011 file photo of Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee interacting with the media. Photo: Rajeev Bhatt

A huge hike in indirect taxes will cause a fall in both savings and consumption, achieving the opposite of what was intended.

The national budget for the financial year 2012-13 is noble in words and wrong on numbers, where bad numbers wage a war against the genuine intents of the Finance Minister. The budget declares laudable objectives, but works for the very opposite. For example, the Finance Minister says that a principal objective of the budget is to “focus on domestic demand driven growth for recovery.” The other objectives of the budget seem dependent on this. If the Finance Minister has to spur domestic demand, he would have cut taxes and left more money to spend in people's hands. But see what he does. With most of his direct tax imposts and cuts concerning only non-corporates, he puts into consumers' pocket Rs 4,500 crore by net cut in direct taxes, but he picks their pockets almost by Rs 46,000 crore by raising indirect taxes. It needs no seer to say that this will erode, not promote, domestic demand.

A contradiction

The Finance Minister expects his budget to produce “lower inflation and higher savings”. This is a contradiction in terms. In theory, a rise in savings, without higher growth rate, means lower demand and consumption. But, if a budget releases inflationary forces by a huge rise in indirect taxes, as the present budget promises to do, it is the cost of goods, not the real sale of them, that will rise — causing fall in both consumption and savings. The hike in indirect taxes will cause price rise and reduce savings. And when prices rise, both savings and real consumption will fall. This is what happened in 2010-11, as the Economic Survey 2012, laid by the Finance Minister himself the day before the budget, notes that inflationary tendencies during 2010-11 caused reduction in household savings.

Moreover, the unprecedented government borrowings of Rs. 4,70,000 crore projected for 2012-13 will dry up liquidity and force up interest rates. The Finance Minister has himself made provision for a huge rise of Rs. 44,000 crore in interest payment to Rs. 3,20,000 crore for the budget year. There is already a liquidity crunch, with banks borrowing heavily from the Reserve Bank. If interest rates, already high, rise further, that will also force down consumption. The effect of the Finance Minister's efforts to moderate this eventuality by allowing FIIs to invest in government and corporate bonds can only be marginal. So the budget delivers lower, not higher, savings and consumption, achieving the very opposite of what the Minister intends. The domestic demand drive he relies on for recovery is thus a non-starter.

With revenue deficit (4.4 per cent of the GDP) and fiscal deficit (5.9 per cent) hitting the roof, the Finance Minister seems to have turned to chartered accountants for ideas to make his balance sheet appear less inelegant. The result is the innovation of “effective revenue deficit,” which bears the stamp of some multinational accounting firm rather than our conservative civil service. Effective revenue deficit is to be arrived at by deducting from “the revenue deficit” all grants made — not only to state governments and constitutional authorities, but also to NGOs — for creation of capital assets not owned and held by the government. This innovation is being legalised by amending the FRBM Act itself. Look how this window-dressing tries to make the deficit more acceptable. In the coming year, from the revenue deficit of Rs. 3,50,000 crore, the grants for capital assets of Rs. 1,65,000 crore are deducted to arrive at the effective revenue deficit of Rs 1,85,000 crore. This psychologically moderates the effect of the effective revenue deficit of 3.5 per cent of GDP to 1.8 per cent.

The Finance Minister appears to have been poorly briefed on numbers. He says that the gross tax revenues proportionate to GDP was 10.4 per cent in 2011-12, and will rise to 10.6 per cent in 2012-13. There is actually a fall in the gross tax to GDP ratio in the last two years. While the ratio of gross tax receipts to GDP is 10.6 per cent in 2012-13, it was over 12 per cent in 2006-07, 13 per cent in 2007-08 and 11.5 per cent in 2008-09. So the revenue in proportion to GDP has actually fallen in the last three years.

From the perspective of resource mobilisation, the Finance Minister has made bold to levy substantial taxes. But he has raised taxes which he should not have and shied away from levying taxes that he ought to have imposed. The turnover of equity, financial and commodity derivatives has grown to huge levels in recent years. A tax on them is overdue not only to raise huge revenue, but also to moderate speculation. A tiny impost of 0.1 per cent on the equity derivatives alone would yield some Rs 30,000 crore. This would never cause inflation, nor rob people's buying power, like indirect taxes. When actual sales and purchases of equity are taxed, it is not clear why there cannot be a tax on futures and options. A levy of 0.1 per cent tax, as on actual equity transactions, on derivatives could have netted a revenue of Rs. 70,000-80,000 crore. Instead of taxing the derivatives, the Finance Minister has, for no reason, cut the tax on equity transactions from 0.125 per cent to 0.1 per cent in the budget.

There are more positive signals in the Finance Minister's speech than in the budget proper. The Minister should be congratulated for bringing the Hutch-Vodafone deal to tax by retrospective amendment to law. The idea of a holding company for financial arms of the government to raise resources is novel, but it has to be carefully structured to part with economic but not ownership interests. Direct delivery of subsidies is another good move. But these are policy measures, not budget provisions.


Yet, it has to be conceded that the Finance Minister has struggled in unenviable conditions to make some sense out of the helpless situation in which he has been placed by his party and government. See his predicament. When he is already battling falling revenues and rising expenditure leading to huge revenue and fiscal deficits, he is forced to foot the cost of the food security law — the pet project of the head of his party who is also the UPA and NAC chairperson. Bound by loyalty to his leader, the Finance Minister has declared that the government is committed fully to providing for food subsidy even if it cannot afford it. Yet, he has not provided a single penny for the food security project! PS: But, does she know it?

(The writer is a chartered accountant and corporate consultant.)

More In: Comment | Opinion

While fixing the Income Tax exemption limit, inflation should be taken
into consideration. If that is the case, what will be the limit now?
Any body's guess ?

from:  Gregory Mathew
Posted on: Mar 24, 2012 at 17:36 IST

The FM by bringing everything under service tax net except negative list and exempted
category has paved way for increasing his revenue and hitting the common man below the
belt. Does the Didi know this ? When she bats for rollback of railfare, she should jump to the
roof and stop this inflation induced amendment to service tax provisions. Who will inform
her? Hey communist comrades are you listening?

from:  n r govindarajan
Posted on: Mar 20, 2012 at 17:18 IST

The Govt have to stoop down to conquer in the battle field of juggling the finances of a vast country. It will not govern as said but will find things going tougher.The Language of Incometax Act are so complex like our Scriptural injunctions that one has to break one's head to interpret it.The FM himself must be wondering whether his Budget Speech has any dynamic approach to ground realities.His body language appears to be asking ' What else can I do '. It is now left to us to wonder 'What next' and wait for some soothing amendments to come thru by wise counsel.We have run into deep waters and time only will tell whether we will sink or float.It is a wonder of wonders that the whole world is in turmoil.Only a few are wise.

from:  A.Padmanabhan
Posted on: Mar 19, 2012 at 19:16 IST

I wonder how such a retrospective amendment deserves applauds from the
author given the message the move sends to investors...

from:  Roshin Unnikrishnan
Posted on: Mar 19, 2012 at 17:36 IST

every one claiming reservation as their birth right there is going to a
big out burst of frustation over these govt on reservations.we should
feel ashame of reservations we as people should deny if not even in
studies the talent is dying every where ..its a curse to be born in
india in a forward caste.........

from:  sahasra
Posted on: Mar 19, 2012 at 17:19 IST

The proposal to hike the indirect taxes with the common man being unaware of what s/he is paying, it will only lead to high inflation and less savings. Moreover the government's way of resorting to depend more on indirect tax sector exposes the government's inept way of dealing with those avoiding the direct tax net besides being unsocial in its approach. It is tantamount to high way robbery.

from:  M.S.Chagla
Posted on: Mar 19, 2012 at 15:48 IST

No one party's budget is focused on people's basic problem.Just by
rising tax,nothing but, we will be burdened. It is big corporate who
benefit out of government standings. India wont develop until this

from:  Selvakumar
Posted on: Mar 19, 2012 at 07:54 IST

Using poetry, bufoonary during budget presentation should be declared unpraliamentary and derogatory. Enough of this buffoonary, we mean business.

from:  MSN
Posted on: Mar 19, 2012 at 07:07 IST
Show all comments
This article is closed for comments.
Please Email the Editor

The then Pakistan President Ayub Khan said in a broadcast that India’s "threats against Pakistan" could lead to "general and total war".

Read more »



Recent Article in Comment

FALLING ICON: “Modi is today being blamed for everything wrong in Uttar Pradesh.” File photo shows a billboard of him being carried away after a rally in U.P.

The burden of high expectations

One year after it delivered him an electoral bounty, Uttar Pradesh is deeply disappointed with Prime Minister Narendra Modi »