1902: Second Boer war ends.

1910: Union of South Africa formed, handing power to Afrikaners.

1912: The South African Native National Congress is born.

1913: Natives Land Act gives 90 per cent of land to white people.

1914: National party founded by Afrikaner nationalists in Bloemfontein.

1918: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela born in Mvezo on July 18.

1923: The SANNC is renamed the African National Congress.

1944: ANC youth league founded.

1948: National party elected and introduces apartheid.

1952: ANC launches defiance campaign.

1956: Mr. Mandela joins 155 others on trial for treason.

1959: Pan Africanist Congress formed.

1964: Mr. Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment.

1990: Mr. Mandela released on February 11, after 27 years in prison.

1994: ANC wins first democratic elections, making Mr.Mandela the country's first African-origin President.

1999: ANC re-elected with Thabo Mbeki as President.

2003: Winnie Mandela convicted of theft and fraud.

2004: ANC re-elected.

2008: Mr. Mbeki replaced by Kgalema Motlanthe.

2009: ANC re-elected with Jacob Zuma as President. — © Guardian Newspapers Limited, 2012

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