1902: Second Boer war ends.
1910: Union of South Africa formed, handing power to Afrikaners.
1912: The South African Native National Congress is born.
1913: Natives Land Act gives 90 per cent of land to white people.
1914: National party founded by Afrikaner nationalists in Bloemfontein.
1918: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela born in Mvezo on July 18.
1923: The SANNC is renamed the African National Congress.
1944: ANC youth league founded.
1948: National party elected and introduces apartheid.
1952: ANC launches defiance campaign.
1956: Mr. Mandela joins 155 others on trial for treason.
1959: Pan Africanist Congress formed.
1964: Mr. Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment.
1990: Mr. Mandela released on February 11, after 27 years in prison.
1994: ANC wins first democratic elections, making Mr.Mandela the country's first African-origin President.
1999: ANC re-elected with Thabo Mbeki as President.
2003: Winnie Mandela convicted of theft and fraud.
2004: ANC re-elected.
2008: Mr. Mbeki replaced by Kgalema Motlanthe.
2009: ANC re-elected with Jacob Zuma as President. — © Guardian Newspapers Limited, 2012