SEARCH

Opinion » Lead

Updated: September 3, 2013 00:51 IST

The political overlords of a violent underclass

Rajrishi Singhal
Comment (43)   ·   print   ·   T  T  
THE HINDU

Skewed growth is pushing the marginalised into the arms of waiting netas who turn them into tools of violence

The rape of a photojournalist in midtown Mumbai has revived public indignation and the debate that followed the brutal and barbaric rape of a young Delhi girl in December 2012. Amidst much hand-wringing and a rerun of inanities over national television, talking heads seem to have once again missed the central narrative — the rising tide of assorted violent acts, the political patronage (both explicit and implicit) that’s sponsoring it and how rape might be an integral part of this hostile environment. What’s more, the horrific incidents of rape continue unabated.

As India staggers from a semi-feudal society to one that’s embracing a strange (and hybrid) version of capitalism, violence in its myriad forms has emerged as the dominant template. The repertoire of violence has graduated from booth-capturing during elections to assassinating political opponents (including whistle-blowers), from vandalising art shows to rape and murder. And the culprits seem to be getting away each time. While the government continues to attract a large share of public censure for its inaction, the blame should ideally lie with the entire political class. It is this section of society, and the trajectory of its evolution, which seems to be strengthening the foundations of violence in our society. Every political party today — across all aisles and the entire spectrum — has to maintain a large army of warm bodies, described variously as “lumpen proletariats,” or “lumpens” or “the underclass,” for implementing its dirty tricks.

In simple terms, these are people thought to inhabit the space below the working class. Social scientists use the term to describe anybody who lives outside the pale of the formal wage-labour system. Disenfranchised and conventionally unemployable, political parties use these people to commit acts — most of which are outright criminal — to improve its own popularity and election prospects.


Becoming invincible

When utilised by political parties as the blunt edge of a bludgeon, this section of society acquires a modicum of invincibility. Given the large-scale subversion of the police force by politicians, lumpens have acquired a sense of daredevilry, a brazen approach to law and order. Immunity from arrests and indifference towards due process of law has invested them with a special feeling of invulnerability.

Some of this imperviousness is inevitable as criminals, or individuals with criminal accusations, become elected representatives themselves. This is a disease that afflicts all political parties. According to the Association for Democratic Reforms, 1,448 of India’s 4,835 MPs and State legislators have declared criminal cases against them. In fact, 641 of these 1,448 are facing serious charges like murder, rape and kidnapping.

The violence is also reflective of the pushing and jostling for elusive entitlements, a handmaiden of the stop-go model of development pursued by India. Asynchronous development of the economy and its institutions often lead to the privileged sections of society cornering disproportionate gains, resulting in discontent among the less fortunate. This then becomes a fertile hunting ground for political dividends. As the economy staggers through a new model of development without overhauling the outdated feudal structure — that still discriminates on the basis of caste, sex, class — missed opportunities and unrealised aspirations push many of the deprived into the arms of opportunist politicians.

Divested of education and employment opportunities, bereft of basic health facilities, exploited by the powerful and ignored by society, the underclass can only turn to political warlords for not only survival but to also actualise their dreams and aspirations. They become the shadow army, the heaving underbelly that the urban middle class doesn’t want to talk about.

Writing in the newspaper Business Standard, T.N. Ninan described the men behind the Delhi rape: “The men who raped and killed...have biographies that are starkly different. Their families may not have been from backgrounds vastly different from that of the girl’s father; they too were mostly one generation removed from villages in North Indian states. But they fell through the cracks in the Indian system — cracks that are so large that they are the system itself.”

To be sure, the combination of economic prosperity for a select few and abject poverty for large sections of the population is a guaranteed recipe for social combustion. When privilege, or nepotism, determines access to scarce resources, conflict is bound to erupt. Inequality, of any kind, remains the spring-well for all conflicts.

Violence is also a way of ensuring maintenance of this privilege. On the day of the Mumbai rape incident, a Shiv Sena MLA abused and threatened women employees of a toll booth in Maharashtra. About a fortnight ago, Shiv Sena and Maharashtra Navnirman Sena party workers beat up North Indian migrant workers in Kolhapur at random as a protest against the rape of a five-year-old allegedly by a labourer from Jharkhand. Not very long ago, a fringe, religio-political outfit in Mangalore, Karnataka, used the excuse of moral offence to inflict violence against young boys and girls. A senior police officer in Uttar Pradesh was shot dead — allegedly by associates of a local politician — when investigating a land dispute.

Police reforms

If these examples of violence seem random and arbitrary, here is the simple truth: if you can dream up any imaginary offence against any section of society, contemporary Indian political grammar gives you the licence to inflict violence against that segment. In the meantime, certain law officers and do-gooders wanting to eradicate rape and sexual crimes from society seem intent on examining the wrong end of a telescope: they are contemplating a ban on pornography.

What’s even more unfortunate is that the police look on helplessly, since their career progression is tied closely to the moods of political masters orchestrating these unorganised armies. Sometimes, they refuse to act even against political goons out of power because who knows what hand will be dealt during the next election.

There have been numerous suggestions and various committee reports on how to reform the police force. The Supreme Court in 2006 had also suggested seven measures to improve the police force. But like all other tough decisions, the government swept this too under the carpet. In addition, lack of proper investigation and poor documentation by the police often forces the judiciary to put criminals back on the streets even before you can say Amar-Akbar-Anthony. As a result, the fear of law ceases to exist.

Growing intolerance

Another form of violent behaviour is now finding sanction from political parties across ideological divides — a new-found love for banning painters, authors, film-makers, etc. Political parties find justifications for banning any art form, using hired goons — who have perhaps never been acquainted with the contentious piece of work — to vandalise and wreak havoc. Recently, supporters of a right wing party vandalised an art show in Ahmedabad for exhibiting works of Pakistani artists. A political party has to only utter indignant statements about any creative work and a ban is immediately enforced. Canada-based, Indian-born writer Rohinton Mistry’s award winning book Such a Long Journey was hurriedly removed from Mumbai University’s syllabus after similar protests. Violence takes many forms and unfortunately India has become home to most of these varieties: imported terrorism, domestic violence, female foeticide, armed insurgency, criminal activity, communal acts, oppression (of caste or gender), etc. While politics does have an indirect role in promoting domestic violence or some criminal activities, its fingerprints are all too visible in all the other forms of violence perpetrated in the country. It’s surprising that a country which gained independence from colonial powers through the instrument of non-violence should today exhibit such a preponderance of violence in its daily life.

But what is baffling is how, increasingly, rape is committed without any fear of legal reprisal or the extent of punishment that might be meted out. Sample the West Bengal government’s reluctance to prosecute party workers accused of rape. It is therefore not surprising that increasing incidents of mindless violence and sexual assaults are being reported from across the country. Judicial commissions and committees are slowly drawing attention to this aberrant social phenomenon: political sanction for violence.

Verma report

The Justice Verma Committee castigates the political class in its report for pandering to chauvinistic and patently anti-women organisations (such as khap panchayats). The committee also pans the political class for ignoring the rights of women since Independence: “Have we seen an express denunciation by Parliament to deal with offences against women? Have we seen the political establishment ever discuss the rights of women and particularly access of women to education and such other issues over the last 60 years in Parliament? We find that over the last 60 years the space and the quantum of debates which have taken place in Parliament in respect of women’s welfare has been extremely inadequate.”

A licence to kill should ideally live only in fiction. A free hand to maim or murder has created a fascist mindset, a mental construct that is at odds with the aspirations of an ancient civilisation trying to find a place on the high table of the modern, free world. It is often argued that the first step in evolving sustainable solutions probably lies in creating independent institutions. But, that might not be enough. As Nobel Prize winning economist and philosopher Amartya Sen has said in his book The Idea of Justice, the existence of democratic institutions is no guarantee of success. “It depends inescapably on our actual behaviour patterns and the working of political and social interactions.”

The first step then might be to provide everybody with equal opportunity — access to education, employment, health care, basic infrastructure (like water or power) — and to overhaul the political system itself by reforming campaign finance.

(Rajrishi Singhal is a Mumbai-based policy analyst.)

More In: Lead | Opinion

Just by reading the article I feel exhausted and outraged! This is a case of 'the fence eating the crop' and the farmer has no place to turn to. The very moral fabric of the society is under a question here! The usual outcome of it all will be, the law of the jungle where the predators excel! As a backlash, there will be anarchy and vigilantism and groups and gangs formation such as the Naxalites. After all, it is in the DNA of the humans to seek and get justice and if that is not forthcoming from the organized and legitimized legal apparatus of any country, the law will be taken in their own hands by the aggrieved. Survival is a basic instinct along with the protection of one's own family.The community will then implode and no force will be able to stop the avalanche of anger and frustration. Serious violence will be inevitable then. Are we ready for such a bleak future or do we fine tune the system now!?

from:  Saratchandran
Posted on: Sep 5, 2013 at 06:10 IST

Extremely well written article.

from:  Pradeep
Posted on: Sep 4, 2013 at 17:37 IST

Adult franchise, that is any being with a human form, can vote in our
democracy is at the root of our problems. The illiterate
mass,incapable of understanding the value of their vote sell it for
small benefits. . Add to it caste, communal, linguistic and other
irrelevant factors for casting a vote. There was no alternative to
adult franchise to keep away communists from the scene as, otherwise,
they will cite this very denial of voting power to capture this mass !
Ultimately our democracy, became notable for orderly conduct of
elections periodically but producing bad quality. Benevolent
dictatorship ? President's rule ? Maybe a trio of eminent persons can
be appointed by of curse, the Army (?!) to rule for five yeras. .
First priority should be restoring the respect for Rule of Law which
prevailed in 1947. Cleansing of the police force and even the
judiciary at the same time.

from:  S. Rajagopalan
Posted on: Sep 4, 2013 at 14:59 IST

Good article but rapists should be publicly executed.

from:  Hussain Ali Khan
Posted on: Sep 4, 2013 at 00:05 IST

Author is perfectly right in identification of main culprits of gender inequality and how the women reservation bill has been pending so long in the parliament.

Napoleon Bonaparte once said 'Give me good mothers and I will give you a good nation'

from:  Mukesh
Posted on: Sep 4, 2013 at 00:00 IST

thanks to the author for this great article.

from:  susant
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 23:22 IST

I do not believe that capitalism has anything to do with rape. Rape occurs in all countries irrespective of their economic model. It is India's political system and nonfunctioning public institutions are real problem. I blame judiciary for such crime. Judiciary does not work and takes too long for any kind of the verdict. People do not have any fear of laws. Countries where judicial system is decisive and quick, such crimes are limited.

from:  Kirit Shah
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 21:51 IST

I see country has exhibited failure in almost every aspect of life and civil society. No wonder it is a failure of 70 years of governance. I see my thought reflected in this words. Thanks to writer and to Hindu newspaper. I would request if this article can be made available in all major Indian languages and reach all sections of society for everyone to know how politics and crime nexus had been exploiting the vulnerable citizens.

from:  Raj Shrivastav
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 21:30 IST

Wonderful set of persuasive points, beautifully stitched together. A
wise and a broad view that helps steer even our troubled and confused
individual lives, with sanity and forbearance. Congratulations.

from:  Arindam Sengupta
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 21:18 IST

>Gr88 job and keep it up:-)

from:  Rhutwik
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 21:09 IST

Very comprehensive article indeed...laying out facts that are spot on.....well over 65 years of independence n a large section of society lacks access to basic needs like water,power n education....then there is another section that is reaping the offerings of globalization n liberalisation....the gap has certainly widened....india now looks like an ocean of poverty with small islands of prosperity...

from:  Sumit Kumar
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 19:59 IST

A long overdue analysis that is cogent and right on the Mark. A blanket ban on
criminals and those convicted of felony from any elected positon is absolutely
essential if we are to gain any ground against the lumpen and their masters. Hindu
has done great public service in giving space for this masterly article.

from:  P.R.Koduri
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 17:51 IST

Political and judicial clemency to the country's proletariat added to the lack of sensitization to the female gender has become a major cause of robbing women of their right to dignity and safety. A lot of ills need treatment for this disease to be fixed. Nice work by the writer!

from:  Dr. Riyaz
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 17:45 IST

the writers brilliance was shown by the examples she had asserted in the
article ,but the major issue to check the crime against women does not
refer to activities of proletariat classes that has been the major power
of the growth,there are some cases too where ,persons from well to do
families and decently educated are also involved in crime against
women.so basically this seems to me that it is the male chauvinism that
coerces some of male to commit these crimes.

from:  nishant sharma
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 15:10 IST

Brilliant analysis.

from:  Rameez Mehar
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 15:09 IST

A staightforward and obvious decay in morals , is being confused by all sorts of perepheral factors not having any high quotient of impact or cause to the evil effect of rape which is becoming more openly visible; the evil libido of the human creature is more related to the permissiveness in living way rather than politics , economy . As that Nobel certified learned man himself listed behaviour first and then thought about interactions. So it is way of life that really matters . the way of life individual and societal is conditioned by culture of the sense of right and wrong being indoctrinated called breeding . If free market based, commercialized way of living is promoted , feelings between individuals for each other becomes commercial than ethical ; difference between right and wrong is Cost/Rs This is the cause. Rape is not a hurt of body but of soul. It has to be prevented by the fear of painful punishment as we're not yet civilized

from:  harihara
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 15:03 IST

Anger against the evils of society has been simmering for long in the hearts of common man.he finds no place to hear his grievances whether its violence against him(sexual or ethnic) or the absence of basic services (health, education ,sanitation). he has to pay bribe at every step to get through slightest of legal procedure/remedies. Justice today remains oblivious to aam-adami. Time is ripe for a tahrir square uprisal in India & weed out the age old parties corrupt to their core from root.

from:  Prabhat
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 14:20 IST

Unfortunately the indian government has never sought to eliminate fascism from the right and especially from the "democractic" left.In Kerala murder, intimidation and censorship flourishes.

from:  Mathew K
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 13:58 IST

FINAL conclusion is INDIA is unsafe nation & without opportunities to grow for working class where the lumpens along with politicians rule the roost. The working class should vote with their boots by moving outside the country for job opportunity into the civilized world. We should stop paying taxes to a system (politician + lumpen + corrupt beureaucracy) that is hostile to our growth. Bihar was taught a lesson for tolerating politician + lumpen in 1990's & its time INDIA learnt a similar lesson.

from:  Shaleen Mathur
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 13:29 IST

The author seems to be selective in citing examples.

A writer by name Taslima Nasreen was hounded out of Calcutta (when
secular and liberal comrades were in power) and was driven out of
Hyderabad (by "minorities") when she went to address a gathering.

from:  kvjayan
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 12:43 IST

I would like to congratulate the author for this brilliantly analytical and yet hard-hitting article. It has been rightly pointed out that the legal immunity that the 'underclass' enjoys in return for their loyalties poses a big law and order problem for our system.Also, as long as the alieanation of the underclass, mentioned in the article, continues, the situation is not likely to improve. The need of the hour is to find an socially-inclusive way to mobilize them in the right direction instead of leaving them at the mercy of their political overlords.

from:  Zeerak Mehdi
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 12:18 IST

Succinct and pragmatic. Talks about the real issues instead of
restricting itself to any one extreme viewpoint, which ultimately only
widens the gulf.

The cultural health of society is a product of the economic and
administrative systems. While we toast the success of HNW individuals,
be it in business, sports, or arts, we forget that they are
representative of an extremely skewed system. Economy (industrial
profits) dictates both politics and culture - the nexus between those
with political heft and cultural and business icons - it's a direct
line between hard and soft power; they feed each other. The latter two
play a big role in legitimizing behaviour-patterns that will ensure
their maintenance. The need for improvement is simply not
acknowledged.

Few realize it, fewer realize the self-destructiveness of our
perverted adoption of capitalism. Everything around us sells only one
idea - to buy is to be.

from:  twistleton
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:53 IST

First I would like to thank The Hindu for its excellent work.
Second, I would like to mention that police reform would be a major step if we want to come out of this mess. All political parties know what a polarization can bring. And actions against violent/chauvinist politicians could mean giving the power back to them. It makes police reform much more important.
Third, the article correctly correlate rape and political sanction for violence. States with more political violence also reports more no. of rape cases.

from:  Shaurya
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:45 IST

My observation in recent panchayat polls in Andhra Pradesh shows that politicians first divide the society by catching their differences, they pump violence into it.They involve in judgement process suppressing police actions.Fear regarding murders,false FIR reports,quarrels at agricultural field,share in usage of social resources so many to mention gripped the villages.Not more than 1% with the help of 5-10% of what Singhal mentioned as lumpens controlling the entire village.People are not in a position to come in support of do-gooders having the above fear in their mind.There are so many villages in India like this.I thought strict police action and
fair trials stimulate strength,courage in society to elect good representatives.Supreme courts directions implementation in police force is the need of the hour.

from:  mandala yadaiah
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:38 IST

I completely agree with the writer's contention that political
voilance have been given a free hand in our democracy and owing to
which we are witnessing incresed crime against weaker section
especially women. political reforms in myriad fields are long overdue
but ther is nothing in sight which could provide a hope to the young
india. hence there is no wonder that people are incresingly taking law
in their hands , without any feeling of fear and moral shame.how this
state of affair would change,is a real question whose answer does not
seem to be coming from any quarter.the only thing which can change the
entire mess is the aware citizenery of India who,at present,is mired
in various petty issues and therfore is not been able to be united for
a concerted action to bring about political reforms.Why should citizen
be assertive becouse only their efforts can make a democracy better
and help it flourish.Sooner the people of this country take this
call,better would be our collective fate.

from:  vinayak singh
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:33 IST

Untold truth of India.....Ground realities are even worse than this.

Thanks for bringing some of these realities outside. Good analysis....

from:  Rajesh panda
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:24 IST

It's amazing how many of the problems in our society are directly
related to the political class, rather wrong people being able to get
into the political system so they can use and abuse it for their narrow
ends. Education, employment, access to health...all these are important
but a more urgent need is to clean up the political scene of people who
should ideally be behind bars!

from:  Raj N
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:23 IST

Ms Singhal,
You diagnose very well upto a point....then in para 12 you name a political party,
Shiv Sena and later talk of a right wing organisation in Karnataka and still later
mention Mamta Banerjee. Soon enough Ahmedabad creeps in.

from:  bindu Tandon
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:13 IST

Crime like rape is an outcome of wreaked mental conditions rather than inequality. Goons, whether they have political patronage or not are nurtured by the lack fear. The people(police) who are responsible for creating the fear are puppets of demagogues and are themselves corrupt. Until the archaic police which was created to oppress the commons and serve the british, who now have been replaced by the politicians, is not replaced by a modern and independent force which serve the hoi polloi, such crime will continue to happen at the same rate.

from:  Ashay Maheshwari
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:11 IST

This is a superbly argued piece, bringing out in crystal clarity the
multiple ills ailing the contemporary Indian society.

When Amartya Sen points out the existence of democratic institutions is
no guarantee of success “It depends inescapably on our actual behaviour
patterns and the working of political and social interactions”, he hits
the nail right on its head.

Our behavior pattern, of course, depends on how widely the population
is educated inculcated with scientific temper and inquiring mind. With
wide swath of people unable to access education for want of
infrastructure, it should surprise none that the country is saddled
with superstitious populace with horrible behavior pattern,
effectively a mill stone around the neck of democratic institutions.

Societal reformation should start with the creating of quality
education infrastructure ensuring that no potential Einstein is left
behind.

from:  N.G. Krishnan
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 11:02 IST

Excellent work very well analysed,gap between rich and poor is very well
used by the political class.

from:  dr asim ghouse basha
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 10:29 IST

Very apt comment. In the absence of education, the vast army of our demographics, is turning out to be a demographic disaster rather than a demographic dividend. Till we have a society that is educated, skilled and employed, we will convulse into deeper morass. No govt can provide any governance when the illiterate are unable to comprehend and think. A sustained GDP growth will create class and economic divides, between the rich and poor, and cause immense harm to society itself. The politicians must get together to solve this crisis.

from:  Anil
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 10:19 IST

Wow! What a beautiful article! It succinctly exposes all the major barriers that are holding our society down. There seems to be a vicious self perpetuating cycle. If equal opportunities were given to one and all, if the economy were thrown open to even the lowest rungs of our society, then the feudal power that the political class holds over the masses will wane. By ensuring that the fruits of development are only available to a select class of middle and upper middle class society, the leaders ensure perpetuation of their power over the rest of the society which is left powerless, helpless and develop into fertile breeding grounds for the lumpen that are then used by the politicians to ensure that the rest of the disenfranchised fall into line without any protest!

from:  Aditya Narayanan
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 10:18 IST

Indian society is and has always been unfair to women. That was true when Lord Ram deserted his wife Seeta to hold on to his power as a "righteous" king 10,000 years ago and it is true today with every occurances of dowry demands, dowry harrassments and rampant "eve-teasing" which is reality a cruelity towards women overlooked everywhere by every class of Indian society. Female infanticite is accepted. Prominent politicians and society in general blaming women for not dressing properly. Indian men have adapted western style clothing for hundreds of years, but a young woman walking on streen in a trousers is a game. Media, law enforcement and judiciary have to do more. Start with treating a 17 and half year old guilty of brutal rape as a grwon up criminal or Indian jucidial system looks to be a joke without a conscious.

from:  Anjali
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 09:55 IST

Excellent analysis! But, unfortunately, the author ran out of space to outline a list of solutions.

from:  Som Karamchetty
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 09:15 IST

A brilliant analysis and hits the nail on the head.Suggest that all our leaders read this
and make concrete changes in the way our political parties operate.As long as the y
patronize these lumpen elements for their dirty work we will have have this
problem.Free the police and see the difference,for which we need to implement the
police reforms!

from:  S R Vellanki
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 08:51 IST

Society is becoming brutal and cruel day by day..... ppl are lossing morality but when it comes to a woman she has to follow dis Society which is immoral....

from:  Geetanjali
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 08:41 IST

The rape of the journalist was an inhuman n brutal act which is condemned by everyone.But people have forgotten that before raping her,they raped four rag pickers,prostitutes as well.This shows how victims are also treated in our society.Also when it comes to so called freedom of speech, why dont paper like the hindu show chauvinism done by muslim body when books like lajja are brought into market in India.Lets be vocal against all sort of chauvnism and not just one please.

from:  Uma
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 08:21 IST

A good article but this will remain a dream for another hundred years . Indian state has been completely destroyed by party politics . Lesser men . Greed . And poverty . The need of the hour is a revolution . A democratic revolution .

from:  Anand
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 08:12 IST

upliftting and enlightening the weaker sections is the
only way ahead to improve this pathetic situation. For this cause it
is not only a few social organisations or activists being the
forerunners, it is every individual who has to indulge in activities
which harness the growth and improve the sections which are down
trodden and used as a bait to the politicians.
Moreover people should not be entitled to elect those representatives
eho are lacking ethical and moral conducts. They shouldn't fall into
short term allurements and try to think about long term implications
of these demon like activities on individual and society

from:  Pandarinath
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 07:30 IST

These problems were there in the 1970's and 1980's - in fact it was
worse because there was no independent television media. Some kinds of
violence, based on caste for example was far more common then. Based on
the ideology of The Hindu, everything is converted into an argument
against economic reform and growth. So all these problems will be solved
if we go back to the socialist economic policies of the 1970's. Or will
the country explode in anger and rage as economic growth collapses
completely?

from:  Mitra
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 07:25 IST

This has been the case in India since it gained independence. The violence and violations have become exponential with each passing decade. Indian society by and large is passive and will take and tolerate lot more, before reaching any possible turning point. Justice, law and order are alien concepts for a feudal society. The past seven decades have done nothing to set precedents.

from:  Mike Decosta
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 02:15 IST

Here the suggested end was perfect. But my question is, whether is it going to make change or it gonna be a news like of an other day. But putting all the blame on politics is also not fair. What kinda human race are these rapists are from!? Mars? No, right. They knows the values and system, India was and is following. And moreover, waiting is pushing the Marginalised class is so shameful to say. Doesn't it sounds like, Skewed political rapists making the wait for marginalised people, so they are doing it in a violent way!? Isn't?

from:  Sharath
Posted on: Sep 3, 2013 at 01:39 IST
Show all comments
This article is closed for comments.
Please Email the Editor


O
P
E
N

close

Recent Article in Lead

Old repressions, new tyrannies

Majoritarian definitions of the world can articulate old repressions, once illegitimate, into new tyrannies. Narendra Modi has acquired an electoral majority but this new majority seeks a redress of old scores »