SEARCH

Opinion » Lead

Updated: June 29, 2013 01:08 IST

The Bhaiya Express to misery

Badri Narayan
Comment (42)   ·   print   ·   T  T  
The Hindu

Indentured labour may be a forgotten part of our colonial economic history but Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh are still sending ‘Girmitya’ to toil in distant lands

The descendants of indentured labourers, who migrated from eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar to erstwhile colonies, recently met at The Hague in the Netherlands to commemorate 140 years of migration — perpetuated through a system popularly known as ‘Girmit.’ They gathered from all corners of the world to pay homage to their ancestors and celebrate the end of slavery in the Dutch colonies. Persons of Indian origin in Suriname, a sizeable portion of the country’s population, are also marking the occasion this month.

Contractual system

Suriname, previously a Dutch colony, abolished slavery in 1863. To meet the demand for cheap labour, however, the Dutch conceived a contractual system, different from its predecessor only in name. Dutch and British officials came to an ‘understanding’ — made in writing — to ‘borrow’ labourers from certain parts of Haryana, west and east Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh for a period of five years. Thus came to be born the ‘Girmit’ system in Suriname. The word ‘agreement’ was transliterated as ‘Girmit’ and ‘Girmitya’ by migrant labourers themselves.

The Girmityas were sent not just to Suriname, but also Mauritius, Fiji, Trinidad, and Guyana. Of these, the Bhojpuri speaking population from east U.P. and west Bihar constituted the largest number. About 1.2 million people from this region were sent as migrant labourers to former colonies. They held festivities annually to celebrate and rejoice the days of their leaving India and settling down in foreign lands. Their descendants have continued this tradition, eulogising their Indian roots, while using the occasion to decry the colonial practice of indentured labour. They also remember India’s abject poverty that forced their ancestors to look for greener pastures.

Migrant Indian labourers worked on sugarcane, rice and coffee farms, shouldering the burden of the economy in the colonies they worked. When Suriname was freed from the Dutch rule in 1970, many Girmitiyas settled in the Netherlands. They identified themselves not as Bharatiyas but as Suriname-Hindustanis. Most wealthy people in Suriname made their money by trading in agricultural products such as spices, tea, coffee, and the like. The biggest bank in Suriname, ABN (Amro) started out by trading in sugarcane. Its branches have been set up today in New Delhi and other metropolitan cities of India. Most Indians are unaware of the bond of toil that ties their ancestors to this bank.

Whether they were successful financially or not, the Girmityas bore the pangs of separation from their families and clans. Their yearly ‘celebrations’ stood testament to their desire to belong home. Ironically, those in India seem to have forgotten all about the Girmityas.

Attuned to modern times

Colonialism across the world was founded on the bonded labour and inhuman toil of the enslaved. The upsurge and revolt by slaves against the ruling class brought about the abolition of this barbaric practice, albeit progressively. A closer examination, however, suggests indentured labour still persists — only this time, it has been attuned to modern day interests and sensitivities.

Even today, people from Purvanchal, Bundelkhand and Bihar of the Hindi heartland are migrating to earn a better livelihood. Why is it that even after 150 or 200 years, people from this region are forced to leave their home and hearth? If their earlier destinations were Mauritius, Suriname, Fiji and Trinidad, they now head for Ghaziabad, Noida, Faridabad, Punjab, Mumbai and Surat. Earlier, they served colonial masters but now they serve the masters of this country.

‘Bhaiya Express’ is a contemporary term of reference for trains that displace people. It does not indicate one train but several trains that carry workers, often perched on roofs, to India’s cities. In colonial times, these trains carried them to coastal depots from where they were shipped overseas. Today, the trains carry migrants from villages like Semra, Barwaripur and Majhauwa to cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Surat, or to Assam and Punjab, where they either work as labourers or from where they are transported further by airplane.

The lion’s share of migrant labourers comes from Azamgarh, Ghazipur, Basti, Banda, Gorakhpur, Sultanpur, Gonda, and Faizabad in the eastern part of U.P. and Raxaul, Narkatiaganj, Betia, Sugauli, Motihari, Chakia, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Jaynagar, Nirmali, Farbisganj, Munger, Purnea, Saharsa, Begusarai, Araria, Sitamarhi, Vaishali, Chhapara, Gopalganj , Bhojpur and Buxar in Bihar. Every day, at least a hundred people or more gather at the railway station or a bus depot in these places to travel to the nearest railway stations like Allahabad, Banaras, Katihar, Barauni, Samastipur, Mokama, Patna, Buxar, Ara, Sasaram, Muzaffarpur, Chhapra and Siwan which fall on the route of long distance trains.

Most of them are unaware of the direction in which their destination lies. Migrant labourers are under the complete custody and ‘protection’ of labour contractors who beg, cajole, lure and threaten them to go to work in factories in big cities. These contractors are the present day equivalents of recruiters or ‘arkatiyas’ of the colonial times, who used to travel from village to village luring hapless people into sub-depots and depots, taking them to work as Girmityas in overseas plantations in the Dutch colonies.

Agony of separation

Today’s migrant labourers, like their colonial-era counterparts, have learnt to live with the sorrow and agony of separation. It is often inevitable. Migration is fuelled by economic necessity and aspiration for a better life. There are payoffs and heartbreaks. Labourers at home and abroad, from then to now, have developed a rich cultural repertoire around migration: folk songs, folk dramas, stories and legends about deities — often goddesses — and folk beliefs.

Earlier, in the Girmitiya phase, the songs dealt with Calcutta and foreign lands, where the labourers migrated. Now, these destinations are inland cities like Ghaziabad, Punjab, Surat and Mumbai. Contemporary songs are woven around a lovelorn woman, who pines for her lover (often husband). These songs — Birhas, Kajri, Jatsaar, Bidesia — are not gender-specific and are sung by both men and women.

New rituals, deities

Such cultural forms have led to a shift in belief systems as a natural historical process. New rituals and deities have been created. Two such deities are Murkatti Devi in Barwaripur village in Sultanpur district and Sankata Devi in Varanasi. Women pray to these goddesses for the well-being and safety of their migrant husbands. It has a unified sensibility and includes birds and spiders, like Shuklain Pakshi, crows and parrots — different calls of these birds convey different meanings, from good, not-so-good, to evil. Certain calls of animals like dogs and cats too form a part of this belief ‘eco-system.’

Families still yearn for the return of their separated members. Earlier, it would take anywhere between six months to a year for letters and money orders to reach homes but today we have the facilities of PCOs and mobile phones for quicker communication. Online transfers of funds happen in a jiffy. Though there are connectivity problems, mobile service providers are expanding their networks in these rural areas.

Every year, during the month of January, our government organises ‘Prawasi Diwas’ in honour of India’s migrants. A separate Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs too has been formed for this purpose but such celebrations neither offer any critique of the self nor any glimpse of the future. Decades after independence, the Planning Commission is yet to formulate concrete plans for the welfare of migrant labourers, headed overseas or to different parts of India.

Taking off from the Prawasiya Bharatiya festivities in Suriname and the Netherlands, we need to review and critique our economic systems, development and social failures in the context of migration and forced labour. This would help stem and stop the social displacement and exodus of labour which still occur from particular regions.

Migration is at once a source of happiness and heartbreak, expectation and disappointment. Every night will always be a dark one for migrant workers. But if the government can find ways to mitigate the physical discomfort that comes with dislocation — poor wages and housing, no healthcare or rations — the migrant will manage to deal a little better with the emotional pain that comes with separation.

(Badri Narayan is Professor, GB Pant Social Science Institute, Jhusi, Allahabad. He is the author of The Making of the Dalit Public in North India (OUP). His research interest is centred on migration and culture)

More In: Lead | Opinion

Migration is also a major problem in population a the metro cities Chennai, Mumbai, coimbatore and all is full of these bhaiyaa people's especially in tiruppur textile industry, metro train works, construction industry is fully occupied by these people because of less labour whereas the soil men who acclaim quality work and high labour. Even there are criminal cases in this people for stealing, counterfeit currency etc we can't blame them altogether! The most needed measure is to control their population increase as almost all the southern states reach their developed state these migrants where a mislead in population as a increase in whole. Anyway they are also humans, Indians time has its answer.

from:  Gopikrishnan
Posted on: Jul 4, 2013 at 10:53 IST

Migration causes social, economic,political problems. Even both migrant as well as his family back at village undergo psychological trauma. Steps should be taken to fulfill people need in their own town, nearest possible place.
It will reduce economic n geographic variations.

from:  Mayuri
Posted on: Jul 2, 2013 at 23:47 IST

The authour should look for an answer to the root question.

Why is that even after many years of working as migrant labor, people from UP/Bihar/MP etc continue to produce too many kids.?

from:  Abhinav
Posted on: Jul 1, 2013 at 16:15 IST

This is one of the major issues that india is facing. Also because of lack of facility in home state these migration worker have no option but to move to other places.
I am working in mnc but can definitely feel the pain that these people faces including abuses, discrimination.

Will pray somebody make a note of their plight and do something for the people who leave their birth place to get something so that they can survive.

from:  Anurag
Posted on: Jul 1, 2013 at 15:52 IST



Migration for earning the sums for running a family is not any thing
new for the peopl of east UP and Bihar, jharkhand. It seems their fate
to dolabour and the separation from family is the secondary thing they
earn while being migrants. The underdeveloped education system and
beneficiary programs for poor are the main reasons of the problem.
Politicians use them as a vote bank and never really want to improve
the literacy, poverty and socio cultural growth, as this would end of
their vote bank.

from:  divya kumar
Posted on: Jul 1, 2013 at 12:36 IST

Very sad story & there is no difference in the misery these people's are facing, even after so many year's of independence. This type of migration disturb the environment & over exploit the place they migrate and create disturbance for local peoples.government should take effective steps to help both type of people's
:-(

from:  Deshraj Katre
Posted on: Jul 1, 2013 at 00:04 IST

Nice article. .. now that I m working in some mnc in some big city of India, I too am realizing the situation of being a migrant. Development should not be centered around just few cities of the country. Unless each region of the country is equally developed, the target of inclusive growth cannot be met.

from:  Vibhuti
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 23:46 IST

Good work..

from:  Mr. Joy
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 22:41 IST

Migration is not new. Dr. Lalitha Kameshwaran from Chennai did
extensive research on the sickle cell anemia disease that was
found to be common among the Dravidians of South India and the
Egyptians establishing the fact that the Lemurians from the
Gondvana landmass have migrated to the shores of the Nile River.
Tamil literature elaborately exposes the travel the Dynastic
rulers of the 3 Empires of the Tamil race took up to Cambodia in
the East, Rome in the West and the Himalayas in the North
transcending oceans, mountains and deserts. The Tamil people are
seen in pockets in each of the African country, the Caribbean
islets, IndoChina and all around India. This is due to migration
in search of job and income. Mumbai city is a heaven for migrated
people in India. Today, not a single city in India is without
people outside of the state it is in. The city of Tirunelveli is
full of Marwaris speaking chaste Tamil. Chembur, Dharavi and
Matunga in Mumbai speaks Tamil like in Madurai or Nellai.

from:  C. Sachidananda Narayanan
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 22:41 IST

What should a defense person be called, a migrant or something else? Their wives also live in agony of separation, they live home for economic requirements and for better life.

from:  Shashikant
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 21:23 IST

Why lament about the poor state of the people when you cannot create a conducive atmosphere for generation of employment in these states. the people are tricked into voting based on casteist or so called secular ideologies. performance of these governments were never part of the equation.

from:  salin
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 21:12 IST

May I add a few corrections. The indentured labourers during late
nineteenth century from Eastern U.P. and Western Bihar were never
advised that they would be taken overseas.They were transported by
boats from Benares,Mokameh, and Patna to Calcutta and herded on
steamers voyaging to Mauritius,Fiji,Trinidad and Tobago, British
Guinea, and Suriname.Once on steamers there was no escape. While the
slavery was outlawed by the British in 1843, the indentured labourers
from India were de-facto slaves. the plantation owners found that they
consumed less food, were docile, and intelligent to be trained as
house servants.More than two hundred indentured labourers working on
sugar plantations of Mauritius did run away, and when cornered by
French police did jump into the sea and died.Obviously living
conditions were horrible.Nearer home,today people from Bhojpuri area
do migrate to Punjab, Gujerat, and Maharashtra for economic
reasons.Human migrations are generally economic not social phenomenon.

from:  Rajendra Asthana
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 19:54 IST

The respective governments of the state need sprout new avenues of devlopements in reagions having high migration level on priority basis

from:  Bharat Pandey
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 19:47 IST

A very revealing article indeed exposing the backwardness of the
rural areas of East UP, All Bihar undivided where the people were
literally traded to slog in the sugar cane fields of the distant
Caribbean and South American and Melanesian and Micronesian
islets. I have heard that people were stacked like bales of
cotton one upon another in the darker dungeons of British ships
for export to the American and British slave markets from the
Badagiri port in Nigeria, West Africa. I think it was before, the
exodus from the areas the author of this article has mentioned is
still happening within the subcontinent. You can see the Bihari
cheap laborers as much in numbers in Jaipur as in Tirupur far
south as well. Illiteracy and corrupt politicians are the
culprits for the peril in exodus of these people slogging more
than 14 hrs in small scale industrial units elsewhere across
India of pittance and pea-nuts.

from:  C. Sachidananda Narayanan
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 17:38 IST

IT professionals and many other jobs in which people migrate in today's date is the perfect examples of Modern GIRMITIYA......
In IT profession also the software engineers are nothing but the IT labors who are under-paid ...just the terminology is changed the pattern of celebrations is different but the agony is same...........

from:  Ankita
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 16:40 IST

Ans to someone s query...poverty does not see your caste.! and second
thing if we talk about eastern UP majority of the people are from GEN
and OBC and their contribution in migrant labouring of our country is
vivacious from the statistics. And if we go to the in depth analysis
of the issue , there are following factors on which it relies..
1. worse primary education level
2. conservative mentality
3. dependency on agriculture by maximum people
4. minimum facility of higher education
5. Population explosion
People are compelled to be part of indentured labour because they
don't have any option.

from:  rananjay
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 15:43 IST

People get what they elect. Bhaiyaas have elected the corrupt parties
again and again. The state like UP can grow double current rate as its
one of the biggest and fertile land bank. Now enjoy 5 years of SP

from:  nishi
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 15:41 IST

Very poignant. Captures the pain of the migrants and exposes the
disabled system of social justice that the State has been following for
decades. But looking at examples of the 'girmityas' in Suriname or
Mauritius one feels the hope that may be the future will eventually be a
lot more promising for those boarding the 'Bhaiya Express' as of now.

from:  Rahul Sinha
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 15:14 IST

If government willingly divert investment projects to these undeveloped states like Bihar, orissa then employment will be generated and these unfortunate migrants brothers will also happily live with rest of there family members.

from:  Yogeshwar Tompe
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 14:59 IST

The mass internal migration from eastern up n bihar puts a question on the part of these governments.has there been developments in those parts of the country they might not leave their home areas.

from:  Alok
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 14:57 IST

Indentured labour exists as long as there is a widening gap between
rich and poor people . People with money exploits the poor in a very
stingy way and reap all profits to themselves and there by maintaining
that rich continues to be richer and poor continues to poor and
enslaved . There is no mentioning of the same migrants moving to
extreme south , mainly in construction sites and other enslaved labour
. Apart from estranging themselves from their homes and culture ,
they have to face the hardships in sustaining their family in their
new homes .Children are denied the basic education and are forced to
help their parents in their work , in most cases , as a free labour
for the contractors.They live in temporary tents with no power and in
water scarce environments .The money , they make, hardly leaves any
room for savings . Hence they have no choice , other than to subdue
themselves in the harsh and slave environs, to sustain their family
until their end .

from:  Arun Anil kumar
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 12:35 IST

A very well-written article. I feel that today migrating and working in a distant land is a complete choice and not just labourers, but people from different professions migrate in different countries and states for work. The reasons: better oppurtunities and better pay. I have seen so many IT centers in Chennai being guarded by people from Assam. Back in Assam, these employees of security services boast that they are working in a 'company'. I feel that people of every class, states, and professions are just trying to not be 'jobless'.

from:  Krishna
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 10:57 IST

I am not sure what the point of the article is. It seems to be talking about the Girmityas - who are a very admirable and unfortunately an often overlooked segment of the indian disapora. Then it weeps about the pains and pangs of the current day migrant laborers. We need to get a dose of reality. Humans have been migrating for thousands of years, many times accross continents for survival, to escape persecution and to make a better life for themselves. India has been pretty much been protected from the unpheavals around the world in the past 1000 years. We should get a grip and stop pitying ourselves.

from:  Sandeep
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 09:47 IST

Success mantra of Migrant : Locals are always right.

from:  Ajay Ranjan
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 09:00 IST

nice article

from:  aayush Bahri
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 04:57 IST

i have seen bihari,upwallah working so hardly in chandigarh,live in slum,in small hut ,on road side sleeping on riksha was very painful experience for me when i came to chandigarh,their way of enjoying life with their own music and cooperation among village,region wise was very marvellous,but lack education in their area make life so hard because they alway has big families ,small land holding with rampant corruptive fuedalist system,where ever they went they carried their own ethic,moral and music, i always listened their songs and stories of mythology,really very interest and majority of them highly hardworker skilled people

from:  bhupinder
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 04:20 IST

Brilliantly started but disspointed in the last two paragraph.same old lines copy pasted
from regular articles on labourer and migrants.The ending in not about what the
article meant to be.
Its a regular analysis of the girmitiyas and migrants from Bihar and Eastern UP.what is
not mentioned is the pattern.Its their position in the social hierarchy-their caste.They
are not Biharis or the UPwallas, as is generally made out to be.They are the lower
caste, dalits, ttribals.And their exodus during colonial time too had a caste pattern with
very little exceptions.When a lobourer from Bihar or UP is beaten up in MH, Assam,
PB,its not that a bihari or UPwalla who got thrashed.Its a class, be it from Bihar UP,
Maharastra, Guj, PB, HR or any other part of this world.

from:  ajay
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 01:32 IST

The lopsided development taking place in the country under the opportunist UPAII government has made the states like Bihar, the eastern part of Up, the Northeast, and some parts of Rajasthan centres of such mass migration of labour.
With Nitish Kumar improving the living conditions in Bihar the Punjabis do not have the privilege of hiring Biharis during theharvest season.They used to have migrants from the more arid parts ofRajasthan likeJaisalmer and Barmer.
Bangalore has a large number of highly skilled immigrants in soft ware and IT. However there are security men, masons, carpenters who have come from Eastern Up Bihar and Orissa.IN Koramangala we have Bihari young men working as cooks for the North Indian young men of the IT loop.The fault lies in the administrators of the deprived regions who have made no attempt to ameliorate their conditions of living.

from:  subbanarasu divakaran
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 01:14 IST

I belong from gonda and left my hometown at the age of 14 in order to have better education now i am well established as a process engineer and i am able to visit my hometown not more then once in a year which is heart breaking as here we lack that flavour in our life.

This is the story of todays young generation who belong from eastern part of up and bihar. Who is responsible for our pain and unsatisfaction i do not know but i hope in future authorities will try to reduce this agony by industrial reforms.

from:  Pushpendra
Posted on: Jun 30, 2013 at 00:22 IST

The phenomenon of migration of poor people from parts of Bihar and UP
is not going to stop in near future.The lack of employment
opportunities combined with the low skill set of the poor and
uneducated people forces them to leave their homes and work as
labourers in distant parts of the country.The MNREGA has not been
successful in helping them as it is marred with corruption and
besides it is not a solution to the problem.The only solution to this
problem is literacy ,though how much time it will take can't be
predicted. In the meantime the best way to help them is strictly
implementing the laws which protect the rights of these people and
saves them from exploitation in the hands of contractors such as long
working hours, low wages and dangerous working conditions which cause
accidents and deaths.

from:  Rishu Kumar
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 21:09 IST

I must congratulate u fr such an informative,well researched and thoughtful article. If India as a nation takes care of its poor well then only can it march towards greatness..Issues regarding welfare of migrant population,if not taken care of,results in apathy towards d system and is underlying reason for many a crimes committed by migrants. Thus well framed policies in this regard will also help reduce crime in our cities..

from:  Anoop
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 18:50 IST

Situation has not changed for the poor people. It is high time that the model
of inclusive economic policies start viving result not remain bonded and binded in administrative files,with layer of hope and aspiration covering it.

from:  Abhiahek
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 16:52 IST

Bad governance for decades, no economic development, lack of social
reforms, no population control,rotten political structure and age-old
caste system- these are few of the many deficiencies these two states
are suffering from. Consequently people from Eastern UP and Bihar are
compelled to migrate, seeking better opportunities and livelihood. A sad
story. But sure, those who have migrated are living a better life and
should have no reason to complain.

from:  Pramod Patil
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 16:49 IST

Very informative article. It is necessary to bring these important aspects of history to current generation. Most papers miss this aspect of journalism. I appreciate the authors for their complete knowledge in this subject. Thank you The Hindu.

from:  Kiran
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 16:36 IST

same kind of agony of separation can be seen across all over india and
in all kind of occupation.
Not only the labourer even the IT person migrating to south or any place
are no more separate from agony of separation.

from:  avi
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 14:38 IST

The agony of migrant labours in this so called "neo-liberal" Indian age as been well
put. The development and nationality model of the country should think along the
lines of progress from below, alleviating the pain of migrant labours, and not just
vie for a slot among developed countries.

from:  Siddharth Shankaran
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 14:09 IST

The 'Girmityas' 'exodus' or should we call it 'export' was painful. It is easy to visualise and empathise as the perpetrators were the 'phoren' colonisers. Why is that, through out the article there is no mention of the fact that these are the most 'populous states' ? No one wants to address this issue. Not the politicians because at one point it will touch 'minorities' stand or 'caste'. But why is media so chary about it ? Large populations whether educated or illiterate, create power struggles to livelihood, space and other resources. The tension within is resolved by existing status in the hierarchy in favor of those who have the 'push/pull'. Rest have to migrate. Only population control, preceded by societal change (read women empowerment which should have men's acceptance by education) can achieve what we all despair will never happen - an equitable society.

from:  Ashwaruda
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 13:19 IST

Agony and emotional pitfalls of migrants well captured by the author. It
is a big concern that still it is going on, albeit in different forms
especially within our country. All citizens of this country who are
better of should have sympathies to these people, especially contractors
should not be carried with the greed of making more money. Hope the government
comes with more welfare programs and better policies for migrant labours.

from:  B Sajjanar
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 10:05 IST

Just a query - is there any relation of migration and the caste? Is
there a case that most of these labour migrants belong to lower castes?

from:  Mahesh J
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 09:10 IST

Wwell written article. I live in Australia which is a neighbour country to Fiji. I came to know about the Girmitiyas here and the pain they had to go to earn. Some poor people did not even know where they were going. They were told that a boat will take them on the other side of the river and they will return in couple of weeks. The boat was actually a ship, river was the ocean and they never returned.

from:  Ajay Punj
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 05:23 IST

Interesting reflection on human history. The same colonial masters
also recruited labour from the tribals of Bihar and UP to work on the
plantations in Assam/Dooars. Their descendents still toil in Indian
and Bangladesh tea estates with their hereditary Sardar getting a
commission on their wages. The same colonial firms that owned the
plantations in the far flung corners of Empire - Fiji, Suriname,
Guyana, etc, also owned the shipping that moved plantation produce,
and human cargo; slaves prior to abolition and indentured labourers
after abolition. It was a vertically and horizontally integrated
multi-national.

from:  Venk
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 05:08 IST

Nitish Kumar's development model has not been able to prevent labour from Bihar migrating to other states. What model is he talking about?

from:  Shyamraj n.g.
Posted on: Jun 29, 2013 at 02:23 IST
Show all comments
This article is closed for comments.
Please Email the Editor
The Hindu presents the all-new Young World


O
P
E
N

close

Recent Article in Lead

Squaring the poverty circle

The method proposed by the Rangarajan expert group to set poverty lines is both theoretically and empirically implausible. A simple and transparent benchmark, amenable to democratic debate, would be more useful »