Opinion » Lead

Updated: August 2, 2013 01:00 IST

Great power and greater responsibility

Harish Khare
Comment (38)   ·   print   ·   T  T  

The welfare state has made governance a one-way street, offering citizens a sense of entitlement without any commitment to nation-building

Last Saturday, a biker lost his life when the police opened fire to tame an unruly group of stunt motorcyclists near India Gate in New Delhi. The biker’s death is the tragic denouement in a rather recent phenomenon of rowdy bikers proclaiming a part of the city as their ‘zone’ and having a good time on their own terms, and, in the process, cocking a snook at the policeman, armed with the simple lathi. Fellow motorists and other users of public spaces have found themselves at the receiving end of these bikers’ boisterous energy. As week after week the bikers insisted on celebrating their peculiar entitlement to thrill and danger, the public mocked the policemen at their helplessness in the face of these daredevils on powerful machines.

Still, whenever a life is lost, it is a matter of regret and sadness, more so when the life lost is so young and so unlived. Saturday’s loss, too, is to be mourned. Since the police have come to be perceived as an unreasonable and uncontrolled force, there is the predictable accusation of “police brutality.” Accounts of how the death occurred would differ and once again the police will come in for a scathing indictment for their presumed lack of finesse in using force against “innocent” citizens.

One of the close relatives of the dead biker was reported to have argued that the young man was neither a terrorist nor a thief and if he was being a social nuisance all the police had to do was to arrest him. In the limited logic of the case, this is a valid point — but, not so valid in the inherent logic of the defiance that the bikers had persistently flaunted. Beyond being a thief or a terrorist, there is indeed much more space in the arena of citizenship.

The larger issue goes straight to the heart of one of the major failings of our democratic quest: we have collectively ignored, that too at our great disadvantage as a nation, that the rites of citizenship entail rights and privileges as well as duties and obligations.

It is obvious that we have invested too much time and energy and intellectual capital in the nation-building processes without emphasising the citizens’ obligations to fellow-citizens as well as to the state. We have definitely neglected the task of society-building and of nurturing habits and attitudes, which enjoin every citizen to do his bit for the larger good, enhancing social capital and collective well-being.

An established order rests on a social compact, in which everyone undertakes to observe restraint on his freedom in exchange for a minimum expectation of security of life and liberty. For instance, a motorist halts at a red light in the reciprocal expectation that the other motorists too would observe the traffic rules; and, then, there is the traffic policeman to see to it that everyone gets to use the road safely with minimum of inconvenience. A protocol of mutually beneficial restraints and responsibilities is at the heart of the social compact. The “authority” has a duty to protect the citizens from harm from other nations, as also to impose reasonable restrictions in order to ensure an ordered and just social existence; in return, the citizens offer allegiance to the nation-state and undertake to “obey” reasonable laws, reasonably crafted and reasonably enforced.

At the beginning of our national journey, Jawaharlal Nehru had the self-assurance of a true national leader and the conviction of a freedom fighter to preach to the citizens the virtues and necessity of self-sacrifice if India was to attain its national destiny. He would mince no words in reminding the students of the “highest degree of self-discipline, the capacity for working together, selfless devotion, and a sense of the practical combined with the enduring passion of a noble idealism.” He would often proclaim at public meetings that “I would like to remind you that you and I have together to bear the burden of the tasks before us.”

Rights & obligations

Somewhere in the mid-1960s this sense of a fine balance between rights and obligations of the citizens got lost. The state proclaimed that it could do anything and would indeed do everything for its citizens. The welfare state and its (politically elected) operatives spelled out for themselves a maximalist mandate, and enticed the citizens (the voters) to support them in this venture. Except for a token of support at the election time, the state and its managers promised to bring sunshine into every life in every hamlet. Perhaps it was a natural extension of the Gandhian promise of “wiping every tear from every eye.” However, while this caring state project was undertaken, nothing was asked of the citizen, except docility and a nominal obedience; no corresponding duties to contribute to social capital, or self-discipline or self-sacrifice for the larger glory of Mother India.

And, in good time, political ineptitude, bureaucratic arrogance and personal corruption combined to sour up the caring state project. As soon as the “Garibi Hatao “ promise faltered, the political opposition closed in, inciting a challenge to the status quo and stagnation, but never summoning the moral clarity to demand the re-building of the broken down capacities or insisting on the re-capitalising of the depleted social assets.

The JP movement in fact elevated this proclivity for social irresponsibility to a moral high. Instead of asking students to be observant and diligent seekers of knowledge, they were instigated to be concerned observers of good governance. Street power or Lok Shakti was deemed as the magical cure for all our deficiencies and difficulties. Since then, it has become an acceptable form for this or that group to invite citizens to “non-co-operate” with the government; the naxals and the jihadis are extreme manifestations of this rejection of the social compact.

Liberal societies thrive because sites of social capital — schools, churches, universities, playgrounds, community projects — reinforce the rigours of citizenship. In our country this task of social renewal has been traditionally undertaken by the religious functionary, at least the enlightened one. The neighbourhood priest or the maulvi or katha-vachak had the skill and the acceptance to de-wean the congregation from social evils and harmful social practices. Unfortunately the social leader too has joined the politician’s partisan animosities. The likes of Baba Ramdev and Sri Sri Ravi Shankar have not been able to resist the temptation of partisan politics and have, in the process, lost their credentials to read the riot act to their followers, devotes and audience.

Unappetising divide

Democracy and its imperfections have taken a toll on society’s morals. And because we ask nothing of our citizens — not sacrifice, not restraint, not moderation — we have ended up creating a morally unappetising divide between the haves and have-nots: under instigation from the bogus vendors of “good governance’ the haves have started asking why they should pay taxes if “their” wealth was to be wasted on giving food or medical care to the poor. A most extreme version: why should we pay taxes to a government that we have declared to be “corrupt?”

This is part of an unending and ever expanding narrative of the Great Helmsman. Instead of stressing the importance of collective and individual responsibility for looking after our schools, neighbourhoods, public transport, rivers and forests, we insist on searching for a great transformer who will magically fix every broken pipe and fill every pothole.

It is not enough that a citizen not be a terrorist or thief; it is very essential that the citizen fulfils with responsibility and diligence his part of the social compact. In no society is the rule of law or good governance available off the shelf; citizens have to earn it. Without practices and precepts of a responsible citizenry, there will be neither a responsible market nor a responsible state.

(Harish Khare is a senior journalist, political analyst and former media adviser to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. He is currently a Jawaharlal Nehru Fellow)

More In: Lead | Opinion

To see this article as only the justification for police firing and loss of an innocent life would be a great folly. By reminding us of our fundamental duties, author seeks to take the debate of balance between rights and duties to a practical level. However tragic, such incidents should alert us about our duties and responsibilties for a harmonious society.

from:  Shailesh Ingle
Posted on: Aug 4, 2013 at 12:49 IST

The police would have only chased the motorcyclists away. A simple presence of police would have frighten them away back their homes. Why to use fire?

from:  Joshua Veta
Posted on: Aug 4, 2013 at 05:28 IST

We created a constitution to guide the free India, but used the laws created by
colonials to enforce the same. One step forward and two steps backward. The
colonials never wanted a progressive India. They wanted a subjugated country and
hence the laws, bureaucracy and police around this objective. If the leaders and
bureaucrats of the young India failed to see that, I would term it as both an
intellectual and leadership failure.
Looking around all the separatist movements in India since 1947, I see them as
symptoms of an oppressive governance under the guise of a democratically
elected parliament. For people in Kashmir or in Punjab or elsewehere, hence an
automatic fall back on their religious or ethnic community's umbrella to fight this
oppression. No surprise then that the adivasis have created their own Maoism to
fall back under to ward of this oppression.

The author expects awareness from the citizens about their duties falsely
assuming that they enjoy equal rights.

from:  Anamendra Bharati
Posted on: Aug 3, 2013 at 22:04 IST

The Article is very nicely written and has presented a very clean and
thorough analysis about the balance of our so-called rights and so-
much-forgotten duties. This article rightly reminds me of being a
'diligent seeker of knowledge' to become a 'self-disciplined' and
concerned citizen. Yes, i shall stride to contribute to the 'larger
glory of Mother India'. And shall inspire people around me to earn
'good governance'.

from:  Himanshu Bansal
Posted on: Aug 3, 2013 at 21:55 IST

Harish, don't you see the breakdown of social compact originating from the leaders?
What did we ask for? We asked for effective bureaucracy, swift justice, equal
treatment, economic freedom to create a prosperous India. What we have got is
dynasty, politicised bureaucracy, and rigged state institutions. Well, when our leaders
our not keeping the social compact with the citizenry how do you expect
neighbourhood vachaks and people themselves to reciprocate. You may also notice
that every Indian is invests with his vote, tax, most of all his child's future in the
India project, and when patronisation betrays due procedure for a long long time -
wont the respect for due procedure dissipate in the general mass?

from:  sj
Posted on: Aug 3, 2013 at 18:42 IST

As professional responders to situations of conflict,the police is
expected not to be swayed by being mocked at into killing the
mockers;there would have been no need for police if all citizens could be
trusted to realize their responsibilities.

from:  Jyotiswaroop Pandey
Posted on: Aug 3, 2013 at 13:14 IST

A biker was fatally shot by police in Delhi for the serious crime of stunt driving. Only in india where vestiges of British Raj remain even after six decades of democracy. The government and its officers are the masters and the peasants exist at their pleasure. British may have brought railways and Telegraph to India, but they also brought the attitude of superiority of the civil service over the citizenry. Infact British sent over their misfits and loosers to govern India. (Remember the great governor general Conwallis whose professional army surrendered to a band of farmers under Washigton at Yorktown).

In India, Civil service and the government are not servants of the people- but masters. No government of the people, by the people, or for the people on this subcontinent. It all starts at the top. The political leaders abuse their power and mistreat the top civil servants who in turn mistreat their underlings who in turn mistreat the general public.

from:  Sankar
Posted on: Aug 3, 2013 at 03:48 IST

This piece is in a word, absurd. Mr. Khare definitely needs some perspective, while paying lip service to the loss of what can (in terms of Indian criminal law) be termed as an innocent life he goes on to advocate ridiculously harsh action to Mantain order and remind the citizenry of their fundamental duties. Duties that even the law makers of our country choose to keep non enforceable in constitutional terms on account of their fluid nature duties that were not even made a part of our constitution by the esteemed constituent assembly. Pointing fingers at jp for inciting unrest and creating irreverence for the law is only stopping an inch shy of blaming mahatma gandhi or nelson mandela for their unrests. Evil and bad rule cannot be subjective to the skin colour of the ruler or anything else it is an absolute. The wrong is wrong and no price to right it is too high THAT'S what jp teaches us.

from:  Ayush Mohan
Posted on: Aug 3, 2013 at 00:20 IST

i find it disturbing to see that people are just viewing this article
as a 'justification' of young lad's death, while they are choosing to
ignore the main thoughts of the writer.
Infact, I since my school days i had always wondered about why is it
so that we are always taught about our RIGHTS again and again and in
every exam we are asked questions about it but never ever made to even
read the FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES of citizen. Every NCERT book had the
PREAMBLE and duties on the starting pages, but not on the inside pages
of civics.
We are always on the front when we have to ask or say demand something
which is perfectly right as that is your RIGHT but at least don't
forget your duties too. Every nation lives within its citizens, if
the citizens stopped caring about the nation it would certainly die.
It is our duty to follow the rules and encourage each other to do so
and not demoralise the person who is standing up for the same.

Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 23:58 IST

Though well written it is difficult to comprehend that how can a writer so skillfully & illogically, but brilliantly move from one raging issue to another without giving a clear explanation of how do we as citizens entail moral responsibility for something that is not within our control? for e.g., bureaucratic, political & social ineptitude

from:  AUS
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 20:39 IST

OMG, did I just read an article justifying the killing of an unruly fellow citizen? Surely, Mr Khare sees himself on the other side of the 2 Indias.

from:  Shinjan
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 20:37 IST

Your lament is well taken.But then it is the same citizenry that
marched along with Mahatma or climbed the gallows.What is it that our
leadership has done since 1947 that has pushed us ordinary free Indians
to such lowly depths? While you blame JP what about
strikes,violence,Bandhs organised by the Left through out their rule in
Suresh Kalmadi instead of supporting sports chose to subvert CWG
itself.May be those bikers in Delhi watched or saw it all.The Left and
Congress party have to take maximum blame for this mess.For they have
been around since 1947.Our youth needs better role models now than what
they have seen so far.

from:  Jitendra Desai
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 19:38 IST

Mr Khare is very eloquent about Mr Nehru when it comes to his contributions to Democracy in India.At the same he is silent about his daughter who did the maximum havoc to democratic institutions in India.Before commenting about Mr Ramdev & Sri Ravi Shanker he should have spoken about the likes of Dhirendra Dharmachari & Chandra Swami and who advocated this god men culture into Indian politics.Selective amnesia is not going to solve this problem

from:  Ramakrishnan P
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 19:13 IST

Its very intersesting to read the article and ask your self at what is citizinary made of? The authour ultimately putting square balme on people taking part in active politics and squaring governments power with their non co-operative methods not being a submissive. If citizens to follow r&r and conform to a norm and just live a life of uncomplaining heros than we dont need democracy, present indian system is quite good one. why because we have double rules when comes to policing and and we make an way for goondas to make the rules.

from:  yasala
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 18:53 IST

A very sensible article from Mr Harish Khare. One has to understand his/her duty, before expecting and demanding anything from state.

from:  Ria Sah
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 18:22 IST

A well piece written by Mr. Khare, There is an old saying which says
"With great power comes big responsibilities" . same apply here too
before empowering citizens by providing them justiciable Fundamental
rights there should be strict punishment for violation of Fundamental
Duties. There should not be any rights for a person without performing
Duties , No human rights for violator of human rights and no legal
rights for violator of legal rights

from:  Vikas Sharma
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 17:24 IST

Mr. Salve should not be so biased towards Congress, since the mishap of police firing and death has happened in the Congress run Delhi as well as Congress run at the center under which Delhi police comes hence the whole blame is put blatantly to the public. If it could have been non congress state than police firing and death would have counter operation for eliminating a political sensitive person. Mr. Salve, do not have two different rules for two different types of governments.

from:  Mukesh
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 17:10 IST

Precisely stating, this article is very balanced in its nature and quite
an awakening in spirit. We all citizens of India always care and claims
for our rights whether fundamental (constitutional) or human
(natural;)But at the same time refuse to comply with rules and Law.
Almost every citizen of our documentarily great India makes an innocent
face when it comes to follow their Fundamental Duties as a citizen of
India. I feel an urgent need for Fundamental Duties to take a
enforceable avtar, constitutionally. Urgently. Jai Hind!

from:  Prateek
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 16:52 IST

awesme article sir.

from:  Shafat Khan
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 16:29 IST

At long last, a sensible article from Mr.Harish Khare. I fully agree with him. Let us be aware of our duties also as citizens. What else could have been done by the Police - when 'people ran amuck'- plead with them to get arrested?

from:  R.M.Murthy
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 14:24 IST

Harish Khare has lost it all - from logics to sense, legal as well.
Punishment should match the gravity of crime (Le punissement devrait
corresponder au crime) and no one should be condemned unheard (audi
alteram partem). Police saw the unruly bikers and decided the
punishment on the spot and also delivered it. According to Mr. Khare it
was the bikers fault since they were a menace to the general public.
And police did good in upholding the rule of law?

The collective failure of our society including the government should
not be an excuse to usher us into a police state.

Also, Mr Khare forgets that even Mahatma Gandhi had to resort to Non-
cooperation movements for freedom and justice. So blaming the masses
for the failure of the successive governments is not correct at all.
More and more people will come on roads, if the things go like this in
our country.

from:  gaurav
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 13:54 IST

Every article by Mr.Harish Khare makes me want to write great articles like him. His English is inspiring; but content leaves a lot to be desired. And every article makes my resolve greater to vote for the opposition than for the Congress.

from:  Kamalakannan
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 13:50 IST

Harish Khare, is wrong in justifying the firing by police. Every policeman will resort to easisiet way fo shooting down the culprits. Then , why are human rights activists shouting on the encounters.
Youngsters have lot of energy. When the nation fails to chanelise this into nation building or purposefull building, they resort to sports and avenues to releive their peped up energy. If the bikers were causing obstruction to traffic at the zero hours, they are free to challan them. But, shooting them down is not going to be of any help. The youth will resort to releiving their energy in more harmful things to the society.

from:  Prem Kumar Gutty
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 12:15 IST

At first glance the arguments are sound and sensible. But, to lay blame on the citizens for not performing their duties is wrong. Harish Khare, like always, fails to find any faults with the government. First the state has failed the citizens, not just on the lofty promised but also on simple rules.

To use his own example, the state failed to stop the 'connected' on the red light. These connected continue to break the red lights, with impunity and it is this habit of the state, which is the main cause of largely demoralized citizenry.

While it is active citizens who bring about positive change in people's health and attitude, from RTI to health consciousness to hospitals, rural development programs, many such activities are taken up by people whom Mr.Khare mentions as irresponsible.

To give an example, Baba Ramdev was teaching yoga,when police came in the middle of the night to evict him and his followers, including old women. Who should read riot act Baba Ramdev or Delhi Police.

from:  Abhinav
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 12:04 IST

The question to be asked is, whether the ability of immense will to
make things right stays with the govt or with the society?. As we grow
up with inculcating good values through social institutions like
schools,colleges, libraries etc, we often get more clarity on the real
practical and the ideal ones as the time progresses. Filling the gap
between ideal and the practical need answers from both govt as well as
the society. If things started to change after 60s that might be
because of the lack of en lighted people who paved the way for
socially less cultured people to move up the ladders, this kind of
progress should have been curbed, since it was not done we are left
with such conditions, where if you make something right , something
somewhere may go wrong , since equilibrium state has not been
attained. Every 'body'(matter in terms of science) try to reach its
equilibrium, the question is when will our people of the society do
reach that equilibrium stage?

from:  hareesh kumar
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 11:52 IST

"..reasonable laws, reasonably crafted and reasonably enforced."
By what stretch of imagination, is the shooting down of a biker indulging in juvenile acts, a "reasonable" enforcement of the law?
Agreed that citizens do have responsibilities and duties and not just rights. But when confronted with a huge power-asymmetry between the state and the citizens, one cannot blame the citizens to live in denial of their duties. It is extremely easy for the state to remind citizens of their duties, but extremely difficult for citizens to remind the state of their duties.
In a case like this, which is most likely to be a case of lapse in judgement by the (justifiably) jittery police officers, a simple, genuine word of regret goes a long way in instilling confidence, than "preaching down" to the population about their duties.

from:  Srinath
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 11:35 IST

JP's total revolution was a permanent evolution to turn the people's and
the youth's minds against such evils as the dowry system, caste-
distinctions, untouchability, communalism etc. and to work unitedly for
social and cultural integration. Isn't it a social responcibility, sir?

from:  himanshu singh
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 11:32 IST

Great power and greater responsibility - Well said Mr. Khare. But why so sudden awakening with morality now? You are powerful - but keep quite on ruling party behaviour - on corruption and general delivery of statement. When parties are opposing SC decision on tainted politicians - your pen should have cited their example and not the ordinary citizens.

from:  Avinash Baranwal
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 11:25 IST

I agree completely with Mr. Harish Khare in bringing out a new perspective in looking at the new line of thinking of the 21st century India.
While government has led major efforts to make its citizen "world class" by providing them with public transportation, higher educational institutions etc, it has certainly failed in "building citizenship" in its citizens.
On one hand making Indian government "secular" has eliminated many of the ills in the Indian Society but, it has also meant that the traditional Indian beliefs which had knit the fabrics of the Indian society is gradually waning. And most importantly, has failed to explain to the citizens what "secular", free as in freedom, personal liberty, and most important "government welfare means".
The current thinking is all that is bad is because of the government; but the question is who is the government? They are also citizens and represent contemporary Indian thinking.
Also, falling standards of education is also responsible.

from:  Venkataswami Iyyer
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 10:56 IST

I wish Mr Khare had reiterated in even more obvious terms that all
citizens of the country INCLUDING the elected representatives are
obliged to observe the fundamental duties.
He has cited the mid-60s as the time when the erosion began, of
citizens' perceptions of civic responsibilities. It began at the top,

from:  Swarna
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 09:55 IST

The article is not rightly timed. The need of the hour is curing the cancer and not refinement of soul.
Although Harish is right (at least in his own rights) to remind the fellow citizens of their moral duties and responsibilities towards the collective good of the state but no argument of his can legitimise the ignorance of citizens towards ill doing by the people in governance.

from:  Dushyant Chaturvedi
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 09:41 IST

As citizens we should follow certain duties. but police too have no right to decide to take away the law into their hands. If somebody commits some crime or law and order problem. we have courts to punish the guilt. Citizens just cannot be fired at for doing something wrong. Even we gave so much chance for Kasab, why can't police take him into custody and summon to the court. Humans are prone to commit mistakes,killing them on the spot is not a good precedent.

from:  Navin
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 09:29 IST

As per the general understanding, definition of a terrorist is someone who spreads terror by indulging in ruthless killing of innocent people. However, going by English meaning of terrorist, anyone who spreads terror by performing actions which may or may not be harmful to general public can be called a terrorist. In the case of ruthless bikers, the special stunts performed by them on the public roadways are dangerous both to themselves and to general public. Hence, we can categorize them as Terrorists too.

from:  Dhaval Malhotra
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 08:49 IST

Harish Khare's analysis of citizens' responsibilities and obligations to the state is valid and cogently argued. However, I disagree with his statement that people don't want to pay taxes because the government is corrupt or that the citizens have resiled from the social compact because the state has assumed a welfare role. People balk at having to pay taxes to a government that does not deliver. The government has retreated from its core obligations - to provide water, transport, good roads, electricity, postal services etc instead turning these into selective, sporadic populist freebies targeted at votebanks. The citizen is reduced to feeling she has to fend for herself - each unto herself without the corresponding state for all, concept. There is no alternative to top-down good governance. The bottoms-up compliance will have to supplement it, cannot supplant it.

from:  Sudha Mahalingam
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 08:40 IST

Thanks for an eye opener. Present citizen hood in our society is half
a century long effect of non practicing teachings of civil science
since childhood. This subject from middle school curriculum has been
neglected by teachers. Fundamental rights are very much known in minor
details including section & sub sections of constitution.
Unfortunately, it is not same when aspect of responsibilities of a
citizen accompany his rights. This selfish awareness of rights and
selfish unawareness of duties and responsibility has harmed quality of
our social life. Republic Day i.e. 26 Jan. is celebrated as a holiday,
not in its true spirit is a national tragedy. Social correction should
come out from inner urge of individual, it can not be imposed upon.
Tendency of not following even practical rules to facilitate smooth
co-living with others is increasing and leaves worst impression.
Surprisingly, all such Indian nationals follow manners so strictly
when they cross border to visit foreign lands.

from:  Chhotubhaiya Akolawala
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 08:25 IST

This is the first really great article I have read that is written by Mr. Khare. His argument is sound and accurate, and captures the reality very beautifully. However, I think it is too late to demand responsibility from Indian citizens, we are too used to being pampered and will continue to be irresponsible until the end.

from:  Atul
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 03:46 IST

Timely and insightful writeup, almost a clarion call, by Harish
Khare! Thanks for writing this piece, Harish! Yes, "citizens have
to earn it"! How many of us who know that the Constitution provides
for Fundamental Rights are also aware that the selfsame
Constitution also speaks about Fundamental Duties, for instance?!
For some reason, "democracy" is increasingly being (mis)understood
to mean unaccountable, unconditional, unbridled, and unimpeachable

from:  Vijay
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 02:17 IST

A peculiar way to remind citizens of their fundamental duties.

from:  Prabhat
Posted on: Aug 2, 2013 at 02:17 IST
Show all comments
This article is closed for comments.
Please Email the Editor



Recent Article in Lead

Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal shakes hand with Lt. Governor Najeeb Jung, after taking oath of office as new Chief Minister. File Photo: R.V. Moorthy

More constitutional than political

A reasonable case can be made that the Delhi Lieutenant Governor’s discretionary powers do not extend to the appointment of the Chief Secretary without the ‘aid and advice’ of the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers »