Data from the latest Transparency International report throws up few surprises as far as India is concerned.

Virtually no key institution or sector in India is seen as being free from corruption in the latest survey of the international anti-corruption watchdog Transparency International, which, in its report 'Global Corruption Barometer 2013' states that bribe paying levels remain "very high" worldwide.

Data from the report offers interesting insights into global corruption trends, but few surprises - most people in India believed that corruption has worsened during the last two years - 40 percent of respondents felt that corruption had increased 'a lot' and 31 per cent 'a little'.

Virtually all key institutions and sectors in India, including the private sector, were regarded as being corrupt or extremely corrupt by respondents - at the top of the list were political parties (86 per cent), police (75 per cent) and public officials and civil servants as well as parliament/legislature (65 per cent each). Least corrupt was the military (20%).

Institutions/sectors Percentage of people who think they are beset by corruption
Political Parties 86
Police 75
Parliament/legislature 65
Public officials/civil servants 65
Education system 61
Medical and health 56
Business/private sector 50
Judiciary 45
Religious Bodies 44
Media 41
NGOs 30
Military 20

Source: Global Corruption Barometer 2013

If it is any consolation, many countries in the world face similar problems in confronting corruption - in 51 countries political parties were seen as the most corrupt institution and 55 per cent of respondents thought that governments were 'run by a few big entities acting in their own best interests.'

As for various public services and bribes being given to secure them - 62 per cent in India reported that they or someone from their household had paid a bribe to the police, 61 to 'registry and permit services' and 58 per cent to 'land services'.

Public service Percentage of those who had paid a bribe
Police 62
Registry and permit services 61
Land services 58
Utilities 48
Education 48
Tax revenue and/or Customs 41
Judiciary 36
Medical and health 34

Source: Global Corruption Barometer 2013

Among the common reasons for paying a bribe, 36 per cent in India said it was the only way to get a service and 35 per cent, to 'speed up things'.

About 47 per cent in India viewed corruption as a very serious problem in the public sector, placing it fifth in terms of severity on a 1-5 ranking scale. And 33 per cent placed it in the fourth position on the scale. Most people in India also felt that personal contacts were important to get things done in their dealings with the public sector - 31 per cent felt it was 'very important' and 35 per cent 'important'. (For the purposes of the survey, 'public sector' meant public sector institutions and services that are owned and/or run by the government.)

And not surprisingly, the majority in India did not think the government was effectively fighting corruption - 26 per cent felt it was least effective and 42 per cent ineffective. The percentage of those who 'strongly agreed' or 'agreed' that ordinary people could make a difference in the fight against corruption was 55.

The survey covered 1,14,000 people in 107 countries. Globally, 27 per cent of respondents reported having paid a bribe when accessing public services and institutions during the last 12 months.

The report has come out with these recommendations to globally combat corruption: make integrity and trust the founding principles of public institutions and services; bring back the rule of law; hold the corrupt to account; clean-up democratic processes and give people the tools and protection to fight against corruption.