India has been ranked below its two nuclear-armed neighbours — Pakistan and China — in the list of countries with a weak nuclear material security in the world, according to a U.S.-based think-tank.
In the 2014 Nuclear Threat Initiative’s Nuclear Materials Security Index released on Wednesday, India has been ranked 23rd out of 25 countries with weapons-usable nuclear materials.
India received 41 out of 100 points, which is improvement by one point from the 2012 score.
For comparison, China received 64 points and has been ranked at 20th spot, while Pakistan with 46 points stands at 22nd place.
India and these countries are included in the list of 25 countries with one kilogram or more of these materials, which also includes all other nuclear-armed states.
The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) said this improvement reflects India’s first contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. “Overall, however, India’s score remains low”.
This is due to a number of factors, including weak regulations that are written as guidance rather than as requirements; increasing quantities of weapons-usable nuclear materials for both civilian and military use and gaps in its regulatory structure such as a lack of an independent regulatory agency.
External risk factors, such as high levels of corruption, which undermine confidence in implementation or enforcement of security measures and also increase the risk that officials may contribute (even unwittingly) to the theft of nuclear material are also among the factors, it added.
Both India and China improved their scores since 2012 by one point by contributing to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund, which supports the implementation of nuclear security activities, the report said.
In comparing both countries, India scored higher than China on the implementation of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540 related to nuclear security issues.
China, however, scored higher in a number of areas, including: the existence of an independent regulatory agency; having invited a peer review of its nuclear security arrangements; and having strong regulations for control and accounting of materials.
Pakistan received 46 out of 100 possible points compared to India’s 41, the report said, adding that both countries improved their scores since 2012.
Pakistan improved its score by publishing new regulations for the physical protection of nuclear facilities.
In comparing both countries, India scored higher than Pakistan on international legal commitments because India has adopted all of the relevant treaties whereas Pakistan has not.
Pakistan, however, scored higher in a number of areas, including: the existence of an independent regulatory agency; having invited peer review of its nuclear security arrangements; and having security and other personnel with access to nuclear materials subjected to additional vetting.
In addition, Pakistan has an operational Center of Excellence (COE), whereas the foundation stone for India’s COE, the Global Center for Nuclear Energy Partnership, was laid on January 3, 2014, it said.
In its report, NTI said India was briefed on the Index, along with other countries.
“Unfortunately, India did not use the opportunity to review and confirm the data, a process through which governments can choose to provide responses to one, some, or all questions depending on their sensitivities and help ensure the accuracy of the data,” it said.
“Out of the 25 countries with weapons usable nuclear materials, 17 (more than two-thirds) responded to the data review and confirmation request (including nuclear-weapons states such as France, the U.K., and the U.S.),” the report said.
NTI said India scored at the top for international legal commitments, having signed and ratified the Conventional on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and its 2005 Amendment, as well as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.
India also received the highest possible score for implementation of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540.
NTI recommended that India’s nuclear materials security conditions could be improved by strengthening its laws and regulations for mitigating the insider threat, for the control and accounting of nuclear materials, and for the physical security of materials during transport.
“India’s existing regulations could be strengthened by taking a more prescriptive approach to security measures, as most countries already do, rather than simply recommending security measures,” it said.
India’s nuclear materials security conditions could also be improved by completing the establishment of an independent nuclear regulatory agency, in fulfilment of a commitment made at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, it said.
Establishing and maintaining a regulatory agency that is independent of influence from those being regulated is necessary to ensure meaningful and unbiased oversight. The importance of an independent regulatory agency has been highlighted in a recent Indian parliamentary panel report.
“Because the potential for theft increases with higher quantities of materials, the NTI Index report recommends that states commit to no net increases of weapons-usable materials and to using existing materials before producing new materials. India’s continuing production of weapons-usable nuclear materials means that it is increasing, not decreasing, its stocks,” it said.
This article has been edited to incorporate the following correction:
A report on India’s rank in the list of countries with a weak nuclear material security in the world (Jan. 9, 2014) was erroneously given the headline, “India ranks below Pakistan in n-safety index. It should have been “India ranks below Pakistan in n-security index.”
Keywords: Nuclear Materials Security Index, nuclear safety, Nuclear Threat Initiative, IAEA Nuclear Security Fund, nuclear materials, nuclear regulatory agency, 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, NTI Index report