Thailand’s Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra defended herself on Tuesday against abuse of power allegations in a crucial court case that is one of several legal challenges, which could remove her from office.

Ms. Yingluck is accused of abusing her authority by transferring her National Security Council chief in 2011 to another position. Critics say the transfer was to benefit her ruling party and violated the Constitution.

“I would like to deny all allegations I am accused of,” Ms. Yingluck said calmly, seated beside her legal team. “As the Prime Minister, I am entitled to carry out responsibilities I have toward the people ... and for the utmost benefit of the general public.”

The case was lodged by anti-government senators, who won an initial victory in February when another court ruled that the official, Thawil Pliensri, must be restored to his job.

If Ms. Yingluck is found guilty of interfering in state affairs for her personal benefit or that of her political party, she would have to step down as Prime Minister.

The court has not said when it will rule on the case.

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