NSA leaker Edward Snowden has applied for asylum in Venezuela, Bolivia and other countries, according to WikiLeaks, which has been advising him. Many European countries on the list including Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland said he would have to make his request on their soil.

Polish Foreign Minister Radek Sikorski, whose consent for asylum would be required, said in a message posted on Twitter that he would not grant the request.

Mr. Snowden’s best chance of finding refuge outside the United States may hinge on the President of Venezuela, who was in Moscow on Tuesday meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Another option may be Bolivia, whose President also was meeting Mr. Putin during a summit of major gas exporters in the Kremlin.

President Evo Morales said in an interview with Russia Today television that Bolivia would be willing to consider granting asylum to Mr. Snowden.

WikiLeaks said requests had also been made to Brazil, China, Cuba, Ecuador, France, Iceland, India, Italy, Ireland and Nicaragua — all of which either gave no response, or rejected the request or said he will have to be in the country for the request to be considered.

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