First African-American President of the U.S. sworn in for second term
A still-popular Barack Obama took the presidential oath of office for a second term on Sunday, facing a troubled future but hoping to leave behind a battering four years at the helm of a government mired in ugly political division.
When Mr. Obama first took office as the 44th U.S. President, many Americans hoped the symbolism of the first African-American in the White House was a turning point in the country’s deeply troubled racial history. Mr. Obama vowed to moderate the partisan anger engulfing the country, but the nation is only more divided four years later, perhaps as deeply as at any time since the U.S. Civil War 150 years ago.
Mr. Obama was sworn in by Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts during a brief ceremony with his family in the White House Blue Room, meeting the legal requirement that presidents officially take office on January 20. Because that date fell on a Sunday this year, the traditional ceremonies surrounding the start of a president’s term were put off to Monday, which coincides this year with the birthday of revered civil rights leader Martin Luther King. He was assassinated in 1968.
Mr. Obama made no special remarks at Sunday’s ceremony, surrounded by portraits of former White House residents. He responded to a remark from one of his daughters, saying, “I did it.” Out the south-facing windows was a view of the towering memorial to George Washington, the country’s first president.
On Monday, he will repeat the oath and give his inaugural speech on the steps of the U.S. Capitol before hundreds of thousands of people. He then makes the traditional journey, part of it on foot, down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House. Fancy dress balls, fewer than in 2009, consume the evening hours.
While Mr. Obama convincingly won a second term, the jubilation that surrounded him four years ago is subdued this time around a reality for second-term presidents. He guided the country through many crushing challenges after taking office in 2009- ending the Iraq war, putting the Afghan war on a course toward U.S. withdrawal and saving the collapsing economy. He won approval for a sweeping health care overhaul. Yet onerous problems remain, and his success in resolving them will define his place in history.
Joe Biden was sworn in for his second term as Vice-President earlier on Sunday, taking the oath from Supreme Court Justice Sonya Sotomayor at his official residence at the U.S. Naval Observatory.
Before taking the oath himself, Mr. Obama and his family attended church services at the historic Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church. Earlier, on a crisp and sunny winter day, Mr. Obama and Mr. Biden laid a wreath at Arlington National Cemetery.
Americans increasingly see Mr. Obama as a strong leader, someone who stands up for his beliefs and is able to get things done, according to a survey by the Pew Research Centre for the People & the Press. The survey shows him with a 52 per cent job approval rating, among the highest rankings since early in his presidency. His personal favourability, 59 per cent, has rebounded from a low of 50 per cent in the 2012 campaign against Republican Mitt Romney.
Domestic issues, notably the economy and health care, dominated Mr. Obama’s first term, but there were also critical international issues that could define his next four years. Mr. Obama may have to decide whether to launch a strike against Iran’s nuclear facilities, something he is loath to do. Washington and its allies believe Iran is trying to build nuclear weapons. Iran says its programme is intended for producing electricity.
Mr. Obama has vowed to keep Iran from crossing the line to nuclear-armed status, but insists there is still time for diplomacy. But Israel is pressuring him to take military action sooner rather than later.
Mr. Obama will also have to deal with the civil war in Syria, Israel-Palestinian tensions, a chill in relations with Russia and a series of maritime disputes in Asia. The administration has long talked of making a “pivot” toward Asia after the U.S. has directed much of its energy to the Middle East in the past decade.
Yet the political battles at home continue to dominate Mr. Obama’s attention. He faces tough opposition from Republicans, especially from among its tea party wing lawmakers determined to shrink government and reduce the taxes. Republicans are themselves divided between tea party loyalists adamantly opposed to compromises on taxes and spending and mainstream Republicans more open to negotiations.
A confrontation is brewing on the need for Congress to raise the limit on U.S. borrowing. Republicans now plan to avoid a fight in the short term, but they will raise the issue again before summer and will again demand steep spending cuts to reduce the government’s debt. Mr. Obama has said he won’t allow them to hold the nation’s economy hostage and will not negotiate, as he did in 2011. A failure to reach an agreement could leave the government without money to pay its debts and lead to the first-ever U.S. default or a government shutdown.
Beyond the debt-ceiling debate are other big budget fights. Looming in the coming weeks are automatic cuts to defense and domestic programmes, originally scheduled for January 1, unless Congress and the president act. And the U.S. budget runs dry in March, leading again to a potential shutdown unless both sides agree on new legislation.
Mr. Obama is also seeking new restrictions on guns and ammunition, a move opposed by most Republicans and the National Rifle Association, a powerful lobbying group which believes any limits would violate constitutional protections for gun owners. Mr. Obama was spurred to action by the massacre last month of 20 children and six adults at their school in Newtown, Connecticut. He has pledged to use “whatever weight this office holds” to fight for his proposals.
Among the second term’s other top-tier issues, immigration may be the one in which Mr. Obama enjoys the most leverage. That’s a dramatic change from his first term, when it was relegated to the background.
The White House is hinting at a comprehensive bill this year that would include a path toward citizenship for millions of immigrants now in the country illegally. Republicans, stung by heavy losses among Hispanic voters in the last two presidential elections, say they also want to revamp immigration laws.