U.S.: President Barack Obama has pledged cutting emissions by 17 per cent from 2005 levels by 2020. That represents a 3-4 per cent cut from 1990 levels — he benchmark used by most countries. Aims to reach a 41 per cent reduction by 2030 and 83 per cent by 2050. Requires that Congress passes complex climate legislation.
China: Has pledged to cut “carbon intensity” a measure of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of production by 40-45 per cent by 2020, compared with 2005 levels.
India: Plans to reduce the ratio of emissions to production by 20-25 per cent compared with 2005 levels by 2020.
Brazil: Voluntary emissions cuts of 36-39 per cent by 2020, largely by slowing deforestation in the vast Amazon region.
South Africa: Said on Sunday that in next 10 years it will reduce emissions by 34 per cent from “business as usual,” the level they would reach under ordinary circumstances. By 2025 that figure would peak at 42 per cent, effectively levelling off and thereafter begin to decline.
EU: Has already agreed to cut emissions by 20 per cent to 2020, compared with 1990 levels. Willing to increase target to 30 per cent if other developed countries make comparable commitments.
Japan: Has set goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 25 per cent from 1990 levels by 2020 if other developed countries make similar commitments. Vague about how it will achieve the target.
Australia: Wants to slash greenhouse emissions by up to 25 per cent below 2000 levels by 2020.
Russia: Has signaled to EU that it is ready to slash emissions by as much as 25 per cent by 2020 if other developed countries do the same. Previously Russia has said it is willing to cut emissions by 10-15 per cent from 1990 levels.
Canada: Plans to reduce emissions by 20 per cent compared with 2006 levels by 2020. That is roughly a 3 per cent cut from 1990 levels.
New Zealand: 10-20 per cent cuts in emissions below 1990 levels by 2020.
Norway: Offering to cut emissions 30-40 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020.
Indonesia: Has said it will reduce emissions 26 per cent by 2020 compared with current trends, and up to 41 per cent if it receives an unspecified amount of financing.
South Korea: Announced last month it would cut greenhouse emissions 4 per cent below 2005 levels by 2020.
Mexico: Has established nonbinding goal of reducing emissions by 50 per cent below 2000 levels by 2050, providing it gets financial and technical assistance.