The Afghan government and the U.S. signed a deal on Sunday governing night raids by American troops, resolving an issue that had threatened to derail a larger pact governing a U.S. presence for decades to come.

Night raids involve U.S. and Afghan troops descending without warning on homes or residential compounds searching for militants. They are widely resented in this deeply conservative country.

Afghan President Hamid Karzai had called repeatedly to stop the raids, saying that they make civilian casualties more likely and that international troops are disrespectful in the way they conduct the operations. The U.S. military has said such operations are essential for capturing Taliban and al-Qaeda commanders.

The resolution of this dispute is a key step toward finalising a long-term “strategic partnership” to govern U.S. forces in Afghanistan after the majority of combat forces leave in 2014. The long-term pact is seen as important for assuring the Afghan people that they will not be abandoned by their international allies.

The memorandum was signed in front of reporters by Kabul's Defence Minister Gen. Abdul Rahim Wardak and the commander of U.S. forces, Gen. John Allen. It appeared to give important benefits to both sides — the document gives the Afghans authority over the raids and gives the Americans an Afghan partner that will now be held equally to account if there are civilian casualties or allegations of mistreatment.

It also was a sign that Mr. Karzai may be willing to compromise on some of his conditions for a long-term pact. Americans and even some of his own advisers feared that his unyielding bargaining style would endanger the entire agreement, and along with it Afghanistan's long-term security.

Similar agreements with other NATO nations would also have been endangered if one had not been signed with the United States.

Mr. Karzai had originally ruled out any type of night raid and his willingness to accept them in any form indicates that he is willing to sacrifice some of his political capital with other Afghans to prevent the agreement from falling apart.

“This is a landmark day in [the] rule of law,” Gen. Allen told reporters. He said Afghans are now “in the lead on two of the most important issues- capturing the terrorists and ensuring they remain behind bars.”

“This is another important step in strengthening the sovereignty of Afghanistan,” said Mr. Wardak.

The Afghans say that foreign-led raids lead to the mistreatment and the accidental killing of civilians, but the Pentagon disputes this.

The Americans say 89 per cent of night operations occur without a shot fired and fewer than 1 per cent result in civilian casualties.

The night raids deal follows an earlier memorandum signed on the transfer of authority over detentions to the Afghans another issue that had threatened to derail the strategic partnership talks.

The detention pact sets forth a timetable to give Afghans operational control of facilities used to hold Afghan detainees, but leaves decisions on who to release to a panel that includes American military officials that must come to a consensus before any detainee is let go essentially giving the Americans the ability to veto any release.

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